研究生英语综合教程下册课文原文(翻译)
参考来源:网络 作者:秩名 更新时间:2016年06月21日 14时52分
1 Hurricanes, house fires, cancer, whitewater rafting accidents, plane crashes, vicious attacks in dark alleyways. Nobody asks for any of it. But to their surprise, many people find that enduring such a harrowing ordeal ultimately changes them for the better.Their refrain might go something like this: "I wish it hadn't happened, but I'm a better person for it."
1飓风、房屋失火、癌症、激流漂筏失事、坠机、昏暗小巷遭歹徒袭击,没人想找上这些事儿。但出人意料的是,很多人发现遭受这样一次痛苦的磨难最终会使他们向好的方面转变。他们可能都会这样说:“我希望这事没发生,但因为它我变得更完美了。”
2 We love to hear the stories of people who have been transformed by their tribulations, perhaps because they testify to a bona fide type of psychological truth, one that sometimes gets lost amid endless reports of disaster: There seems to be a built-in human capacity to flourish under the most difficult circumstances. Positive responses to profoundly disturbing experiences are not limited to the toughest or the bravest.In fact, roughly half the people who struggle with adversity say that their lives subsequently in some ways improved.
2我们都爱听人们经历苦难后发生转变的故事,可能是因为这些故事证实了一条真正的心理学上的真理,这条真理有时会湮没在无数关于灾难的报道中:在最困难的境况中,人所具有的一种内在的奋发向上的能力会进发出来。对那些令人极度恐慌的经历作出?积极回应的并不仅限于最坚强或最勇敢的人。实际上,大约半数与逆境抗争过的人都说他们的生活从此在某些方面有了改善。
3 This and other promising findings about the life-changing effects of crises are the province of the new science of post-traumatic growth. This fledgling field has already proved the truth of what once passed as bromide: What doesn't kill you can actually make you stronger. Post-traumatic stress is far from the only possible outcome. In the wake of even the most terrifying experiences, only a small proportion of adults become chronically troubled. More commonly, people rebound-or even eventually thrive.
3诸如此类有关危机改变一生的发现有着可观的研究前景,这正是创伤后成长这一新学科的研究领域。这一新兴领域已经证实了曾经被视为陈词滥调的一个真理:大难不死,意志弥坚。创伤后压力绝不是唯一可能的结果。在遭遇了即使最可怕的经历之后,也只有一小部分成年人会受到长期的心理折磨。更常见的情况是,人们会恢复过来—甚至最终会成功发达。
4 Those who weather adversity well are living proof of the paradoxes of happiness.We need more than pleasure to live the best possible life. Our contemporary quest for happiness has shriveled to a hunt for bliss-a life protected from bad feelings,free from pain and confusion.
4那些经受住苦难打击的人是有关幸福悖论的生动例证:为了尽可能地过上最好的生活,我们所需要的不仅仅是愉悦的感受。我们这个时代的人对幸福的追求已经缩小到只追求福气:一生没有烦恼,没有痛苦和困惑。
5 This anodyne definition of well-being leaves out the better half of the story, the rich, full joy that comes from a meaningful life. It is the dark matter of happiness,the ineffable quality we admire in wise men and women and aspire to cultivate in our own lives. It turns out that some of the people who have suffered the most, who have been forced to contend with shocks they never anticipated and to rethink the meaning of their lives, may have the most to tell us about that profound and intensely fulfilling journey that philosophers used to call the search for "the good life".
5这种对幸福的平淡定义忽略了问题的主要方面—种富有意义的生活所带来的那种丰富、完整的愉悦。那就是幸福背后隐藏的那种本质—是我们在明智的男男女女身上所欣赏到并渴望在我们自己生活中培育的那种不可言喻的品质。事实证明,一些遭受苦难最多的人-他们被迫全力应付他们未曾预料到的打击,并重新思考他们生活的意义—或许对那种深刻的、给人以强烈满足感的人生经历(哲学家们过去称之为对“美好生活”的探寻)最有发言权。
6 This broader definition of good living blends deep satisfaction and a profound connection to others through empathy. It is dominated by happy feelings but seasoned also with nostalgia and regret. "Happiness is only one among many values in human life," contends Laura King, a psychologist at the University of Missouri in Columbia. Compassion, wisdom, altruism, insight, creativity-sometimes only the trials of adversity can foster these qualities, because sometimes only drastic situations can force us to take on the painful process of change. To live a full human life, a tranquil, carefree existence is not enough. We also need to grow-and sometimes growing hurts.
6这种对美好生活的更为广泛的定义把深深的满足感和一种通过移情与他人建立的深切联系融合在一起。它主要受愉悦情感的支配,但同时也夹杂着惆怅和悔恨。密苏里大学哥伦比亚分校的心理学家劳拉?金认为:“幸福仅仅是许许多多人生价值中的一种。”慈悲、智慧、无私、.洞察力及创造力—有时只有经历逆境的考验才能培育这些品质,因为有时只有极端的情形才能迫使我们去承受痛苦的改变过程。只过安宁的、无忧无虑的生活是不足以体验一段完整的人生的。(此文来自袁勇兵博客)我们也需要成长-尽管有时成长是痛苦的。
7 In a dark room in Queens, New York, 31-year-old fashion designer Tracy Cyr believed she was dying. A few months before, she had stopped taking the powerful immune-suppressing drugs that kept her arthritis in check. She never anticipated what would happen: a withdrawal reactions that eventually left her in total body agony and neurological meltdown. The slightest movement-trying to swallow, fqr example-was excruciating. Even the pressure of her cheek on the pillow was almost unbearable.
7在纽约市皇后区一间漆黑的房间里,31岁的时装设计师特蕾西?塞尔感到自己奄奄一息。就在几个月前,她已经停止服用控制她关节炎的强效免疫抑制药。她从没预见到接下来将要发生的事:停药之后的反应最终使她全身剧烈疼痛,神经系统出现严重问题。最轻微的动作—比如说试着吞咽—对她来说也痛苦不堪。甚至将脸压在枕头上也几乎难以忍受。
8 Cyr is no wimp-diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis at the age of two, she had endured the symptoms and the treatments (drugs, surgery) her whole life. But this time,she was way6 past her limits, and nothing her doctors did seemed to help. Either the disease was going to kill her or, pretty soon, she felt she might have to kill herself.
8塞尔并不是懦弱的人。她在两岁时就被诊断得了幼年型类风湿性关节炎,一生都在忍?受着病症和治疗(药物、手术)的折磨。但是这一次,她实在不堪忍受了,她的医生所做的一切似乎都不起作用。要么让疾病结束她的生命,要么她就得很快了结自己的生命了。
9 As her sleepless nights wore on, though, her suicidal thoughts began to be interrupted by new feelings of gratitude. She was still in agony, but a new consciousness grew stronger each night: an awesome sense of liberation, combined with an all-encompassing feeling of sympathy and compassion. "I felt stripped of everything I'd ever identified myself with," she said six months later. "Everything I thought I'd known or believed in was useless-time, money, self-image, perception. Recognizing that was so freeing."
9然而,在经历了若干个不眠之夜后,她想自杀的念头开始被新的感激之情所打断。虽然她仍然感到痛苦,但一种新的意识每一夜都变得更加强烈:一种令人惊叹的解脱感,结合着一种包容一切的同情和怜悯的情感。“我感到一切我曾经用来认同?自己身份的东西都被剥夺了,”六个月后她这样说道,“一切我认为我知道或相信的事物—时间、金钱、自我形象、对事物的看法—都毫无价值了。意识到这一点真是让我感到解脱。”
10 Within a few months, she began to be able to move more freely, thanks to a cocktail of steroids and other drugs. She says now there's no question that her life is better. "l felt I had been shown the secret of life and why we're here: to be happy and to nurture other life. It's that simple."
10在几个月内,得益于类固醇加其他药物的鸡尾酒疗法,她开始能够更加自如地活动了。她说,毫无疑问她现在的生活状况有了好转。“我感觉我窥探到了生命的秘密以及我们生存的意义,那就是快乐地生活,同时扶持他人。就这么简单!”
11 Her mind-blowing experience came as a total surprise. But that feeling of transformation is in some ways typical, says Rich Tedeschi, a professor of psychology at the University of North Carolina in Charlotte who coined the term "post-traumatic growth". His studies of people who have endured extreme events, like combat, violent crime or sudden serious illness show that most feel dazed and anxious in the immediate aftermath; they are preoccupied with the idea that their lives have been shattered. A few are haunted long afterward by memory problems, sleep trouble and similar symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder 7. But Tedeschi and others have found that for many people-perhaps even the majority-life ultimately becomes richer and more Gratifying.
11她这种不可思议的经历完全是个惊喜。但是北卡罗来纳大学夏洛特分校心理学教授里奇?特德斯基认为,这种转变的感觉从某些方面看却是很典型的。里奇?特德斯基教授首创了“创伤后成长”一词。他对那些经历了诸如搏斗、暴力犯罪、突患重病等极端事件的人群进行了研究,这些研究表明,在刚经历不幸后大多数人随即都会感到茫然和焦虑。他们一心想的就是,自己的生活完全被毁了。有少部分人事后很久了还不断被记忆问题、失眠以及类似的创伤后应激障碍所折磨。但特德斯基和其他学者发现,对很多人(可能甚至是绝大多数人)来说,生活最终会变得更加丰富和更加令人满足。
12 Something similar happens to many people who experience a terrifying physical threat. In that moment, our sense of invulnerability is pierced, and the self-protective mental armor that normally stands between us and our perceptions of the world is torn away. Our everyday life scripts-our habits, self-perceptions and assumptions-go out the window, and we are left with a raw experience of the world.
12许多经历过恐怖的人身威胁的人会遇到类似的情况。在事情发生的那一瞬间,我们的安全感被冲破了,平时处于我们与我们对世界的种种看法之间的自我保护的精神盔甲被剥离了。我们的日常生活轨迹(我们的习惯、自我认识和主观意念)全部被抛到九霄云外,只剩下对世界的原始体验。
13 Still, actually implementing these changes, as well as fully coming to terms with a new reality, usually takes conscious effort. Being willing and able to take on this process is one of the major differences between those who grow through adversity and those who are destroyed by it. The people who find value in adversity aren't the toughest or the most rational. What makes them different is that they are able to incorporate what happened into the story of their own life.
13尽管如此,要实际实现这些转变并完全接受新的现实,通常需要有意识地付出努力。是否愿意并有能力承担这个过程,就是那些在灾难中成长和那些被灾难所摧毁的人之间主要的区别之一。认为灾难有价值的人并不是最坚强或最理性的人。使他们与众不同的是他们能够将所遭遇的事融入他们自己的人生历程中。”
14 Eventually, they may find themselves freed in ways they never imagined.Survivors say they have become more tolerant and forgiving of others, capable of bringing peace to formerly troubled relationships. They say that material ambitions suddenly seem silly and the pleasures of friends and family paramount-and that the crisis allowed them to recognize life in line with their new priorities.
14最终,他们可能会发现自己以从未想到过的方式获得了解脱。幸存者往往说他们变得更加宽容,也更能原谅别人,能够缓和原本糟糕的关系。他们说物质追求突然间变得很无聊,而朋友和家庭带来的快乐变得极为重要,他们还说危机使他们能够按照这些新的优先之事来重新认识生活。
15 People who have grown from adversity often feel much less fear, despite the frightening things they've been through. They are surprised by their own strength, confident that they can handle whatever else life throws at them. "People don't say that what they went through was wonderful," says Tedeschi. "They weren't meaning to grow from it. They were just trying to survive. But in retrospect, what they gained was more than they ever anticipated."
15从灾难中成长起来的人尽管经历过恐怖的事情,但他们的恐惧感往往大为减少。他们对自己的力量感到吃惊,相信不管今后生活中将要遭遇什么,他们都能应付。特德斯基说:“人们不会说他们所经历的是美好的。他们并不是特意要通过这样的经历来成长。他们只是尽其所能生存下来。但回顾起来,他们的收获远远大于他们所预料的。
16 In his recent book Satisfaction, Emory University psychiatrist Gregory Berns points to extreme endurance athletes who push themselves to their physical limits for days at a time. They cycle through the same sequence of sensations as do trauma survivors: self-loss, confusion and, finally, a new sense of mastery. For ultramarathoners, who regularly run 100-mile races that last more than 24 hours, vomiting and hallucinating are normal. After a day and night of running without stopping or sleeping, competitors sometimes forget who they are and what they are doing.
16埃默里大学精神病学家格列高利?伯思斯在他的近作《满足》中指出,极限耐力运动员每次训练都要使自己的身体连续数天处于极限状态。他们和经历创伤的幸存者所经历的感觉过程一样:自我失落,困惑,最后获得一种新的驾驭感。对于经常跑超过24小时的l00英里比赛的超级马拉松运动员来说,呕吐和产生幻觉是常事。在一昼夜不停歇不睡觉地跑步之后,竞赛者有时会忘了自己是谁,忘了自己在干什么。
17 For a more common example of growth through adversity, look to one of life's biggest challenges: parenting. Having a baby has been shown to decrease levels of happiness. The sleep deprivation and the necessity of putting aside personal pleasure in order to care for an infant mean that people with newborns are more likely to be depressed and find their marriage on the rocks. Nonetheless, over the long haul, raising a child is one of the most rewarding and meaningful of all human undertakings. The short-term sacrifice of happiness is outweighed by other benefits, like fulfillment, altruism and the chance to leave a meaningful Legacy.
17更普遍的在逆境中成长的例子要数生命中最大的挑战之一:为人父母。生育孩子一直被认为会降低幸福程度。为了照顾婴儿而睡眠不足并且必须将自己的消遣撇到一边,意味着有了新生儿的人更有可能感到抑郁并且面临婚姻的危机。然而,长远看来,养育孩子是所有人类活动中最有意义、最值得去做的一件事情。短时间内牺牲了幸福,却有了更多的收获,比如满足感、无私以及有机会留下一笔意义深远的遗产。
18 Ultimately, the emotional reward can compensate for the pain and difficulty of adversity. This perspective does not cancel out what happened, but it puts it all in a different context: that it's possible to live an extraordinary rewarding life even within the constraints and struggles we face. In some form or other, says King, we all must go through this realization. "You're not going to be the person you thought you were, but here's who you are going to be instead-and that turns out to be a pretty great life."
18总之,情感上的回报可以弥补灾难带来的痛苦和艰难。这种精神收获并不能抵消所发生的苦难,但是它可以把这些苦难全部放在另一个不同的背景中来看待,..那就是即使我们面临约束和挣扎,我们仍然可以生存得极有价值。金指出,我们所有的人都必须以这样或那样的形式经历这种觉悟。“你将不再是自己心目中曾经的你,取而代之的是一个新的你—而事实会证明生活从此将非常美好。”
Unit2  Commercialization and Changes in Sports
1.Throughout history sports have been used as forms of public entertainment. However,sports have never been so heavily packaged, promoted, presented and played as commercial products as they are today. Never before have decisions about sports and the social relationships connected with sports been so clearly influenced by economic factors. The bottom line has replaced the goal line for many people, and sports no longer exist simply for the interests of the athletes themselves. Fun and "good games" are now defined in terms of gate receipts, concessions revenues, the sale of media rights, market shares, rating points, and advertising potential. Then, what happens to sports when they become commercialized? Do they change when they become dependent on gate receipts and the sale of media rights?
1在整个历史长河中,人们都是把体育当作某种形式的公众娱乐。然而,体育从未像今天这样作为一种商业产品被如此盛大地包装、推广、呈现和开展,有关体育的决策以及与体育相关的社会关系也同样从未如此显然地受到商业因素的影响。对许多人来说,账本底线已取代了球门线,体育不再只是为了运动员们自身的兴趣而存在。今天,乐趣和“好比赛”的定义取决于门票收入、特许权收人、媒体传播权的出售、市场份额、收视率以及广告潜力。那么,当体育变得商业化时,它会怎样?当体育变得依赖于门票收人和媒体传播权的出售时,它会发生变化吗?2.We know that whenever any sport is converted into commercial entertainment, it success depends on spectator appeal. Although spectators often have a variety of motives underlying their attachment to sports, their interest in any sporting event is usually related to a combination of three factors: the uncertainty of an event's outcome, the risk or financial rewards associated with participating in an event,and the anticipated display of excellence or heroics by the athletes. In other words, when spectators refer to a "good game" or an "exciting contest", they are usually talking about one in which the outcome was in doubt until the last minutes or seconds, one in which the stakes' were so high that athletes were totally committed to and engrossed in the action, or one in which there were a number of excellent or "heroic" performances. When games or matches contain all three of these factors, they are remembered and discussed for a long time.
2我们知道,每当任何一项体育运动被转化为商业性娱乐活动时,它的成功就依赖于观众的兴趣。尽管观众对于体育的拥护背后潜藏着多种动机,但他们对体育比赛的兴趣通常与三种相结合的因素有关:比赛结果的不确定性,参加一项比赛相关的风险或经济回报,以及预期中的运动员的卓越、英勇表现。换句话说,当观众提及一场“不错的比赛”或一场“激动人心的比赛”时,这场比赛,通常在比赛即将结束的最后几分钟甚至儿秒钟时,结果仍然扑朔迷离;或者比赛涉及高额奖金,因而运动员们都全身心地投入比赛。或者比赛展示了许多出色的或者“英雄式”的表现。只要运动比赛包含所有这三方面因素,人们就会长时间记得并讨论这场比赛。
3.Commercialization has not had a dramatic effect on the format and goals of most sports. In spite of the influence of spectators, what has occurred historically is that sports have maintained their basic format. Innovations have been made within this framework, rather than completely dismantling the design of a game. For example, the commercialization of the Olympic Games has led to minor rule changes in certain events, but the basic structure of each Olympic sport has remained much the same as it was before the days of corporate endorsements and the sale of television rights.
3商业化对于大多数体育运动的结构和目标没有太大的影响。尽管观众会对其产生影响,但在历史上,运动项目保持了它们的基本结构。创新也是在这一框架内进行的,并不会完全废除这项运动的基本设计。例如、奥运会的商业化导致了某些赛事规则的微小变化但其每项运动的基本结构还是和商家赞助及电视转播权出售之前基本一致。
4.Commercialization seems to affect the orientations of sport participants more than it does the format and goals of sports. To make money on a sport, it's necessary to attract a mass audience to buy tickets or watch the events on television. Attracting and entertaining a mass audience is not easy because it's made up of many people who don't have technical knowledge about the complex athletic skills and strategies used by players and coaches. Without this technical knowledge, people are easily impressed by things extrinsic to the game or match itself; they get taken in by hype. During the event itself they often focus on things they can easily understand. They enjoy situations in which players take risks and face clear physical danger; they are attracted to players who are masters of dramatic expression or who are willing to go beyond and their normal physical limits to the point of endangering their safety and well-being; and they like to see players committed to victory no matter what the personal cost.
4看来,与运动的结构和目的相比,商业化更多的是影响运动参与者的取向。若要通过一项运动盈利,就必须吸引广大观众买门票或在电视上观看比赛。吸引和娱乐广大观众并非易事,因为这些观众中有很多人没有技木性的知识,因而不懂得运动员和教练采取的复杂竞技技巧和策略。由于缺乏这些技术性知识,人们容易受到运动或赛事之外的东西的影响,容易受到天花乱坠的宜传的迷惑。在比赛期间,他们经常关注那些他们容易理解的事情。他们喜欢那种运动员冒险并明显面临身体危险的情境,他们喜爱那些搜长戏剧化表现或者愿意超越正常的生理极限以致威胁到自己的安全和健康的运动员。他们喜欢看到运动员不惜代价,立志求胜。5.For example, when people lack technical knowledge about basketball, they are more likely to talk about a single slam dunks than about the consistently flawless defense that enabled a team to win a game.Similarly, those who know little about the technical aspects of ice skating are more entertained by triple and quadruple jumps than by routines carefully choreographed and practiced until they are smooth and flawless.Without dangerous jumps, naive spectators get bored. They like athletes who project' exciting or controversial personas,and they often rate performances in terms of dramatic expression leading to dramatic results.They want to see athletes occasionally collapse as they surpass physical limits, not athletes who know their limits so well they can successfully compete for years without going beyond them.
5比如,当人们缺乏篮球方面的技术知识时,他们更津津乐道于某一个灌篮,而不会关注球队取胜必需的因素:自始至终配合得天衣无缝的后防。同样,那些对滑冰技术知之甚少的人,他们更感兴趣的是三连跳或四连跳,而不是那些精心设计并训练直至流畅、完美的舞步。没有惊险的跳跃,无知的观众会感到厌倦。他们喜欢那些表现得激动人心或有争议性的运动员。他们往往根据戏剧化的表现是否导致戏剧化的结果来评价比赛。他们想看运动员在超越自己极限时偶尔的突然失败,而不是多年来稳操胜券,熟知自己极限而不去超越它的运动员。
6.When a sport comes to depend on entertaining a mass audience, those involved in the sport often revise their ideas about what is important in sport. This revision usually involves a shift in emphasis from what might be called an aesthetic orientation to a heroic orientation In fact, the people in sport may even refer to games or matches as "show-time", an  iey may refer to themselves as entertainers as well as athletes. This does not mean that aesthetic orientations disappear, but it does mean that they often take a back seat to the heroic actions that entertain spectators who don't know enough to appreciate the strategic and technical aspects of the game or match.
6当一项体育运动变得依赖于娱乐广大观众时,对于运动中什么才是重要的,运动参与者们往往会改变观念。这一改变常常意味着重心从所谓的美学取向向英雄主义取向转变。其实,运动员可能甚至把运动或比赛称为“表演秀”,并把自己称作表演者兼运动员。这并不意味着美学取向不复存在了,但是这确实意味着与英雄主义行为相比,它们常常退居其后。英雄主义行为吸引着那些没有足够的知识欣赏运动或比赛的策略和技术的观众。
7.As the need to please naive audiences becomes greater, so does the emphasis on heroic orientations. This is why television commentators for US football games continually talk about danger, injuries, playing with pain, and courage. Some athletes, however, realize the dangers associated with heroic orientations and try to slow the move away from aesthetic orientations in their sports. For example, some former figure skaters have called for restrictions on the number of triple jumps that can be included in skating programs. These skaters are worried that the commercial success of their sport is coming to rely on the danger of movement rather than the beauty of movement. However, some skaters seem to be willing to adopt heroic orientations if this is what will please audiences and generate revenues. These athletes usually evaluate themselves and other athletes in terms of the sport ethic, and they learn to see heroic actions signs of true commitment and dedication to their sport.
7取悦无知观众的需求越强烈,就越会强调英雄主义取向。这就是为什么美国橄榄球比赛的电视评论员喋喋不休地谈论危险、受伤、带伤比赛和胆量。不过,有些运动员意识到了与英雄主义取向随之而来的危险,并试图在他们的运动中放慢偏离美学取向的步伐。比如,一些前花样滑冰运动员已经呼吁限制滑冰项目中三连跳的数量。这些滑冰运动员担心,他们的体育项目在商业上的成功正越来越依赖于动作的危险性,而不是动作的美感。然而,另外一些滑冰运动员似乎愿意采取英雄主义取向,只要这样能取悦观众,获得收入。这些运动员用体育道德规范去评价自己和他人,他们还学会把英雄主义行为看成是真正地投入及为运动献身的标志。
Commercialization also leads to changes in the organizations that control sports. When sports begin to depend on generating revenues, the control of sport organizations usually shifts further and further away from the players. In fact, the players often lose effective control over the conditions of their own participation in the sport. These conditions come under the control of general managers,team owners,corporate sponsors, advertisers, media personnel, marketing and publicity staff, professional management staff, accountants, and agents.
8商业化同样会导致那些控制体育的组织发生变化。当体育开始依赖于创造收入时,体育组织的控制权就会离运动员越来越远。事实上,运动员常常对于自身的体育参与环境失去有效控制。这些环境越来越受控于下列人员:总经理、运动队老板、企业赞助商、广告商、传媒人员、营销和宜传推广人员、专业管理人员、会计师以及经纪人。
9..The organizations that control commercial sports are usually complex, since they are intended to coordinate the interests of all these people, but their primary goal is to maximize revenues.This means that organizational decisions generally reflect the combined economic interests of many people having no direct personal connection with a sport or with the athletes involved. The power to affect these decisions is grounded in a variety of resources, many of which are not even connected with sports. Therefore athletes in many commercial sports find themselves cut out of decision-making processes even when decisions affect their health and well-being.
9那些控制商业体育的组织通常非常复杂,这是因为它们企图协调上述所有人的利益,但它们的首要目标还是盈利最大化。这意味着组织决策通常反映的是许多人的混合利益,而他们与体育或相关运动员没有直接联系。影响这些决策的力量根植于各种不同的资源,其中许多甚至与体育没有关联。因此,许多商业体育中的运动员发现自己被逐出了决策过程,即便这些决策影响到他们的健康和幸福。
Unit3  Oslo
1.I remember on my first trip to Europe going alone to a movie in Copenhagen. In Denmark you are given a ticket for an assigned seat. I went into the cinema and discovered that my ticket directed me to sit beside the only other people in the place,a young couple locked in the sort of passionate embrace associated with dockside reunions at the end of long wars. I could no more have sat beside them than I could have asked to join in-it would have come to much the same thing- so I took a place a few discreet seats away.
1记得我第一次去欧洲旅行的时候,我在哥本哈根独自一人去看电影。在丹麦,电影票是对号入座的。(此文来自袁勇兵博客)我走进电影院,发现在我的票对应的座位旁,只有一对年轻情侣。这对情侣如胶似漆地拥抱在一起,如同一场持久战争结束后码头上亲人的团聚。我很不情愿坐在他们旁边,就如我绝不会要求加入他们的行为一样——这两者对我来说并没有什么不同——因此我谨慎地隔几个座位坐了下来。
2. People came into the cinema, consulted their tickets and filled the seats around us. By the time the film started there were about 30 of us sitting together in a tight pack in the middle of a vast and otherwise empty auditorium. Two minutes into the movie, a woman laden with shopping made her way with difficulty down my row, stopped beside my seat and told me in a stern voice, full of glottal stops and indignation, that I was in her place. This caused much play of flashlights among the usherettes and fretful re-examining of tickets by everyone in the vicinity until word got around that I was an American tourist and therefore unable to follow simple seating instructions and. I was escorted in some shame back to my assigned place.
2人们陆续地走进影院,参照电影票找到位子,在我们周围坐了下来。电影开场时,这个宽敞空旷的观众席中间,扎堆地坐了约30人。电影开场两分钟后,一个拎着大包 小包购物袋的女士艰难地挤到我这排,在我座位旁停下,并用严厉的口吻愤怒地朝我用充满了喉塞音的丹麦语说道,我坐在了她的位子上。女引座员马上打开手电筒查看情况,身边所有的人都不安地重新确认自己票上的座位号,直到大家都清楚了,我是一个美国游客,因此没有遵循简单的就座指示。在羞愧中我被送回指定的位子。
3.So we sat together and watched the movie, 30 of us crowded together like refugees in an overloaded lifeboat, rubbing shoulders and sharing small noises, and it occurred to me then that there are certain things that some nations do better than everyone else and certain things that they do far worse and I began to wonder why that should be.
3接下来我们坐在一起看电影,30人如同一艘超载的救生船上的难民一般挤作一团。肩膀相互摩擦着,忍受着各种细小的噪声。那时我想,有些国家在某些事情上做的比任 何其他国家都好,然而在另外一些事情上,他们却糟糕很多。我开始思考为何会有如此反差。4.Sometimes a nation's little contrivances are so singular and clever that we associate them with that country alone-double-decker buses in Britain, windmills in Holland (what an inspired addition- to a flat landscape: think how they would transform Nebraska),sidewalk cafes in Paris. And yet there are some things that most countries do without difficulty that others cannot get a grasp of at all.
4有时候某个国家的小发明是如此独特和精巧,以至于我们总是由它而联想到这个国家——英国的双层巴士,荷兰的风车(给原本单调的景观增添了多么美妙的创意:想想这些风车是如何改变了内布拉斯加州),还有巴黎人行道上的露天咖啡馆。然而, 也有一些事情,大部分国家能不费吹灰之力地办到,但某些国家却完全想不到。
5.The French, for instance, cannot get the hang of queuing. They try and try, but it is beyond them. Wherever you go in Paris,you see orderly lines waiting at bus stops, but as soon as the bus pulls up the line instantly disintegrates into something like a fire drill at a lunatic asylum as everyone scrambles to be the first aboard, quite unaware that this defeats the whole purpose of queuing.
5比如说,法国人无法掌握排队的窍门。他们一遍遍地尝试,但这似乎超出了他们的能力范围。无论你去巴黎的任何地方,总会看到整齐的队伍在公交车站候车。但一旦公交车靠站,队伍立刻瓦解,就像精神病院的消防演习一样,所有人都争抢着第一个上车,完全没意识到,这样一来排队的意义就荡然无存了。
6.The British, on the other hand, do not understand certain of the fundamentals of eating, as evidenced by their instinct to consume hamburgers with a knife and fork. To my continuing amazement, many of them also turn their fork upside一down and balance the food on the back of it. I’ve lived in England for a decade and a half and 1 still have to quell an impulse to go up to strangers in pubs and restaurants and say, "Excuse me. Can I give you a tip that'll help stop those peas bouncing all over the table?"
6另一方面,英国人则不能领略吃的基本要领。证据就是他们本能地使用刀叉来食用汉堡。更令我惊讶的是,他们大多数都把叉子颠倒放置,将食物搁在它的背上。我已经 在英国居住了 15年,但我仍不得不压制这种冲动,想要走向酒吧或餐馆里的陌生人说:“打扰一下,可以允许我告诉你一个小技巧吗?(此文来自袁勇兵博客)那样你就不会把豆子散落在整张桌子上了。
7.Germans are flummoxed by humor, the Swiss have no concept of fun, the Spanish think there is nothing at all ridiculous about eating dinner at midnight, and the Italians should never, ever have been let in on the invention of the motor car.
7德国人被幽默困扰,瑞士人对乐趣毫无概念,西班牙人丝毫不觉得在半夜吃晚饭有什么滑稽之处,而意大利人从不,也绝不会让别人告诉他们汽车是如何发明的。
8.One of the small marvels of my first trip to Europe was the discovery that the world could be so full of variety, that there were so many different ways of doing essentially identical things, like eating and drinking and buying cinema tickets. It fascinated me that Europeans could at once be so alike-that they could be so universally bookish and cerebral, and drive small cars, and live in little houses in ancient towns, and love soccer, and be relatively unmaterialistic and law-abiding, and have chilly hotel rooms and cosy and inviting places to eat and drink-and yet be so endlessly, unpredictably different from each other as well. I loved the idea that you could never be sure of anything in Europe.
8这次欧洲之旅带给我很多惊奇的小事,其中一个就是我发现世界竟能如此多样化,对于本质上相同的事物处理起来却方式各异,比如说吃喝或是买电影票。有趣的是,欧洲人有时可以突然变得如此相似——他们普遍好学而理性,开着小车,住在古镇的小房子里,喜欢足球,不怎么注重物质生活,遵纪守法,而且他们住寒冷的宾馆房间,去温暖舒适的地方吃喝——然而却同时拥有着如此琢磨不透、永无止尽的差异。在欧洲没有什么是百分之百肯定的,对此我十分赞同。
9.I still enjoy that sense of never knowing quite what's going on.In my hotel in Oslo where I spent four days after returning from Hammerfest, the chambermaid each morning left me a packet of something called Bio Tex Bla, a "minipakke for ferie,hybel og weekend" according to the instructions. I spent many happy hours sniffing it and experimenting with it, uncertain whether it was for washing out clothes or gargling or cleaning the toilet bowl. In the end I decided it was for washing out clothes- it worked a treat-but for all I know for the rest of the week everywhere I went in Oslo people were saying to each other, "You know, that man smelled like toilet-bowl cleaner."
9我仍然享受着对事情进展的未知感。从哈默菲斯特返回后,我在奥斯陆的宾馆呆了四天,女服务员每天早上都留给我一盒叫做Bio Tex Bla的东西,说明上说是一种 “minipakke for ferie,hybel og weekend”。我不清楚它到底是用来洗衣服的,还是漱口的, 或是用来淸洗抽水马桶的,我通过闻它的气味,并试验它各种可能的用法,度过了好几个快乐的小时。最后我判定它是甩来洗衣服的——它的确有效——然而就我所知,在奥斯陆度过的剩下几周中,无论我去哪儿,都听见有人互相议论:“你知道吗?那个人身上有马桶清洁剂的味道。”
10.When I told my friends in London that I was going to travel around Europe and write a book about it, they said, "Oh, you must speak a lot of languages."
10当我告诉伦敦的朋友,我将周游欧洲并写成书时,他们说:“喔,你肯定会说很多语言吧。”?
11."Why, no," I would reply with a certain pride, "only English," and they would look at me as if I were crazy. But that's the glory of foreign travel, as far as I am concerned. I don't want to know what people are talking about. I can't think of anything that excites a greater sense of childlike wonder than to be in a country where you are ignorant of almost everything. Suddenly you are five years old again. You can't read anything, you have only the most rudimentary sense of how things work, you can't even reliably cross a street without endangering your life. Your whole existence becomes a series of interesting guesses.
11 “为什么,我不会,”我会带着一点傲气回答,“我只会英语。”然后他们就看着我,好像我疯了。(此文来自袁勇兵博客)但是就我而言,那正是国外旅游的美妙之处。我并不想知道人们在说些什 么。置身于一个对你而言完全陌生的国家,能激发一种孩子般的好奇心。除此之外,我想不出还有什么更好的办法。突然之间你又回到了五岁。你无法读懂任何东西,你对事物运行方式只有最基本的感知,你甚至无法安全地穿过马路。你的整个存在变成了一系列有趣的猜想。
12.I get great pleasure from watching foreign TV and trying to imagine what on earth is gonging on.On my first evening in Oslo,I watched a science program in which two men in a studio stood at a lab table discussing a variety of sleek, rodent-like animals that were crawling over the surface and occasionally up the host's jacket. "And you have sex with all these creatures, do you?"the host was saying.
12 看国外电视节目,试着想象到底发生了什么事,这让我乐此不疲。比如说,在奥斯陆 的第一个晚上,我收看一个科学节目,演播室里的两个男子站在一张实验桌旁,讨论着一种有着光滑皮毛的貌似啮齿目的动物,它们在桌面上爬行,偶尔爬上主持人的外套。主持人正在说:“那么你与所有这些动物做爱,是吗?
13."Certainly," replied the guest. "You have to be careful with the porcupines, of course and the lemmings can get very neurotic and hurl themselves off cliffs if they feel you don't love them as you once did,but basically these animals make very affectionate companions, and the sex is simply out of this world."
13 “当然,”嘉宾回答道,“你必须对豪猪十分小心,当然,旅鼠若是感觉你不再像以前 那样爱它们,会变得焦躁不安并跳下悬崖,但总的来说,这些动物是非常亲切的伴侣, 并且性也是十分美妙的。
14."Well, I think that's wonderful. Next week we'll be looking at how you can make hallucinogenic drugs with simple household chemicals from your own medicine cabinet, but now it's time for the screen to go blank for a minute and then for the blights to come up suddenly on the host of the day looking  as if he was just about to pick his nose. See you next week."
14 “哎呀,我觉得那很棒。下周让大家见识一下你是怎么用药柜中的简单家庭用药制造出致幻药的。(此文来自袁勇兵博客)该让荧幕空白几分光突然亮起,然后让灯光突然亮起,照在主持人身;让他看起来似乎就像正要抠鼻子。下周见。”
15.After Hammerfest, Oslo was simly wonderful. It was still cold and dusted with greyish snow, but it seemed positively tropical Hammerfest, and I abandoned all thought of buying a furry hat. I went to the museums and for a day-long way out around the Bygdoy' peninsula, where the city's finest houses stand on the wooded hillsides, with fetching views across the icy water of the harbour to the downtown. But mostly I hung around the city center, wandering back and forth between the railway station and the royal palace, peering in the store windows along Karl Johans Gate2, the long and handsome main pedestrian street, cheered by the bright lights, mingling with the happy, healthy, relentlessly youthful Norwegians, very pleased to be alive and out of Hanunerfest and in a world of daylight. When I grew cold, I sat in caf e s and bars and eavesdropped on conversations that I could not understand or brought out my Thomas Cook European Timetable and studied it with a kind of humble reverence,planning the rest of my trip.
15 去过哈默菲斯特后,就货得奥斯陆简直妙不可言。天气依然很冷,到处还撒着灰蒙蒙 的雪花,但是比起哈默菲斯特来那可要暖和多了,这也让我彻底放弃了想要买毛皮帽的想法。我参观了博物馆,并花了一天时间游览巴度半岛,那里丛林茂密的山坡上矗立着该城市最美的房子,其视野可跨越海港冰面一直延伸到市区,十分迷人。但是大多数时间我就在市中心闲逛,在火车站和皇宫之间来回溜达,在卡尔约翰街向街旁的商店橱窗里张望。在路边明亮的灯光的照耀下,长长的卡尔约翰步行街富丽堂皇, 与健康快乐、不屈不挠又充满朝气的挪威人融合在一起。我很高兴能离开哈莫斯菲特并来到这个充满活力、犹如白昼的世界。当我觉得寒意逼人时,我便进入咖啡馆或酒吧坐下,偷听那些我无法明白的对话,抑或拿出我的《托马斯库克欧洲时刻表》,满怀敬意地加以研究,做接下来的旅行安排。
Thomas Cook European Timetable is possibly the finest book ever produced. It is impossible to leaf through its 500 pages of densely printed timetables without wanting to dump a double armload of clothes into an old Gladstone4 and just take off. Every page whispers romance: "Montreux-Zweisimmen-Spiez-Interlaken","Beograd-Trieste-Venezia-Verona-Milano","Goteborg-Lax'-(Hallsberg)-Stockholm", "Ventimiglia-Marseille-Lyon-Paris"5.Who could recite these names without experiencing a tug of excitement, without seeing in his mind's eye a steamy platform full of expectant travelers and piles of luggage standing beside a sleek, quarter-mile- long train with;a list of exotic locations slotted into every carriage? Who could read the names "Moskva-Warszawa-Berlin-Basel-Geneve" and not feel a melancholy envy for all those lucky people who get to make a grand journey across一storied continent?Who could glance at such an itinerary and not want to climb aboard? Well, Sunny von Biilow for a start. But as for me, I could spend hours just poring over the tables, each one a magical thicket of times, numbers, distances, mysterious little pictograms showing crossed knives and forks, wine glasses, daggers, miner's pickaxes (whatever could they be for?), ferry boats and buses, and bewilderingly abstruse footnotes.
16《托马斯库克欧洲时刻表》可能是已出版的最优秀的书籍。当你迅速翻阅了其500页 密密印刷的时间表后,你必然有冲动想要往旅行包内塞进两抱衣服,然后立刻出发。 每一页都低声诉说着浪漫:蒙特勒—兹怀斯门—施皮茨—因特拉肯,贝尔格莱 德—的里雅斯特——威尼斯—维罗纳—米兰,哥德堡—拉赫斯河—(哈尔 斯贝里)—斯德哥尔摩,文堤米利亚—马赛—里昂—巴黎。无论是谁吟诵这 些地名,都会感受到一股强烈的兴奋,想象着雾气蒙蒙的月台,以及在400多 米长的流线型车厢旁,站满了期待的旅客,堆满了行李,每个车厢里都放着一张写着外国地名的列表。当读到莫斯科—华沙—柏林—巴塞尔—日内瓦这一系列地名时,又有谁不会伤感地羡慕那些能够横跨这个历史悠久的大陆的幸运儿呢?看过这樣的旅行安排,谁不想踏上行程呢?(此文来自袁勇兵博客)那么,桑尼.冯.比洛就是这样一个例子。但是对我来说,我可以花大量时间就这样凝视着这些列表,每一份都不可思议地包含了时刻、数量、距离、画着交叉刀叉、酒杯、匕首、矿工镐(不管做何用途)、渡轮和巴士的神奇小图,以及令人困惑的深奥脚注。
Unit4  Is Google Making Us Stupid
1.Over the past few years I've had an uncomfortable sense that someone, or something,has been tinkering with my brain, remapping the neural circuitry, reprograming the memory. My mind isn't going一  so far as I can tell一  but it's changing. I'm not thinking the way I used to think. I can feel it most strongly when I’m reading. Immersing myself in a book or a lengthy article used to be easy. My mind would get caught up in the narrative or the turns of the argument, and I’d spend hours strolling through long stretches of prose. That's rarely the case anymore. Now my concentration often starts to drift after two or three pages. I get fidgety, lose the thread, begin looking for something else to do. I feel as if I'm always dragging my wayward brain back to the text. The deep reading that used to come naturally has become a struggle.
1在过去的几年里,我老有一种不祥之感,觉得有什么人,或什么东西,一直在我脑袋里捣鼓不停,重绘我的脑电图,重写我的脑内存。我的思想倒没跑掉—到目前为止我还能这么说,但它正在改变。我的思维方式在变。这种感觉在我阅读的时候尤为强烈。过去总是不费劲就能让自己沉浸在一本书或一篇长文章中,被其中的叙述或不同的论点深深吸引。我还会花数小时徜徉在长篇散文中。可如今这都不灵了。现在,我翻上两三页书,注意力就开始不集中了。我会变得烦躁,抓不住重点,开始想找点其他的事情做。我感觉我似乎要硬拖着我任性的大脑才能回到文章中。原本轻松自然的深度阅读,已成了痛苦挣扎。
2.I think I know what's going on. For more than a decade now, I've been spending a lot of time online, searching and surfing and sometimes adding to the great databases of the Internet. The Web has been a godsend to me as a writer. Research that once required days in the stacks or periodical rooms of libraries can now be done in minutes. A few Google searches, some quick clicks on hyperlinks, and I've got the telltale fact or pithy quote I was after. Even when I'm not working, I'm as likely as not to be foraging in the Web's info-thickets2-reading and writing emails, scanning headlines and blog posts, watching videos and listening to podcasts, or just tripping from link to link to link. (Unlike footnotes, to which they're sometimes likened, hyperlinks don't merely point to related works; they propel you toward them.)
2我想我知道到底是怎么一回事了。十多年来,我在网上花了好多时间,在因特网的信息汪洋中冲浪、搜寻、添加。对作家而言,网络就像个天上掉下来的聚宝盆。过去要在书堆里或图书馆的期刊阅览室中花上好几天做的研究,现在几分钟就齐活。“谷歌”几下,快速点开几个链接,就可以找到我所需要的事实或者精炼的引证。即使在工作之余,我也很有可能在信息丰富的网络里遨游—收发电子邮件、浏览头条新闻、点击博客、看视频、听播客或者只是从一个链接跳转到一个又一个链接。(超链接常被比作脚注,但是和脚注不一样,超链接不仅仅链接到相关作品;它们还驱使你去点击创门。)
3.For me, as for others , the Net is becoming a universa一medium, the conduit for most of the information that flows through my eyes and ears and into my mind. The advantages of having immediate access to such an incredibly rich store of information are many, and they've been widely described and duly applauded. "The perfect recall of silicon memory," Wired's0 Clive Thompson has written, "can be an enormous boon to thinking." But that boon comes at a price. As the media theorist Marshall McLuhan pointed out in the 1960s, media are not just passive channels of information. They supply the stuff of thought, but they also shape the process of thought. And what the Net seems to be doing is chipping away at my capacity for concentration and contemplation. My mind now expects to take in information the way the Net distributes it: in a swiftly moving stream of particles.Once I was a scuba diver in the sea of words. Now I zip along the surface like a guy on a Jet Ski.
3对我来说,像对其他人也一样,网络已经成为了一种通用的媒介,大部分信息都通过这个渠道进人我们的眼、耳,最后进人我们的大脑。能从这样一个异常丰富的信息库中直接获取信息,其优点是很多的,而且也得到了广泛的描述和适当的赞誉。“硅存储器的完美记忆性,”《连线》杂志的克莱夫?汤普森写道,“对于思想来说是一个大实惠。”但是这个实惠是要付出代价的。(此文来自袁勇兵博客)就像媒体理论家马歇尔?麦克卢恩在上世纪60年代所指出的那样,媒体可不只是被动的信息渠道。它们不但提供了思想的源泉,也塑造了思想的进程。网络似乎粉碎了我专注与沉思的能力。现如今,我的脑袋就盼着以网络提供信息的方式来获取信息:飞快的微粒运动。曾经我是文字海洋中的潜水者,现在我则像是摩托艇骑手在海面上风驰电掣。
4.I’m not the only one.When I mention my troubles with reading to friends and acquaintances-literary types, most of them-many say they're having similar experiences. The more they use the Web, the more they have to fight to stay focused on long pieces of writing. Some of the bloggers I follow have also begun mentioning the phenomenon. Scott Karp, who writes a blog about online media, recently confessed that he has stopped reading books altogether. "I was a lit major in college, and used to be a voracious book reader," he wrote. "What happened?" He speculates on the answer: "What if I do all my reading on the web not so much because the way I read has changed, i.e. I'm just seeking convenience, but because the way I think has changed?"
4我并不是唯一一个有此感觉的人。当我向文学界的朋友和熟人提到我在阅读方面的困扰,许多人说他们也有同样的感受。他们上网越多,在阅读长文章时,就越难集中精力。我所关注的一些博主也提到了类似的现象。斯科特?卡普开了一个有关在线媒体的博客,最近他承认自己已经完全不读书了。 “我大学读的是文学专业,曾经是一个嗜书如命的人,”他写道。“到底发生了什么事呢?”他推测出了一个答案:“如果对我来说,通过网络来阅读的真正理由与其说是我的阅读方式发生了改变,比如,我只是图个方便,不如说是我的思维方式在发生变化,那么我该怎么办呢?”
5.Bruce Friedman, who blogs regularly about the use of computers in medicine, also has described how the Internet has altered his mental habits. "I now have almost totally lost the ability to read and absorb a longish article on the web or in print," he wrote earlier this year. A pathologist who has long been on the faculty of the University of Michigan Medical School, Friedman elaborated on his comment in a telephone conversation with me. His thinking, he said, has taken on a "staccato" quality, reflecting the way he quickly scans short passages of text from many sources online. "I can't read War and Peace anymore,"he admitted "I've lost the ability to do that. Even a blog post of more than three or four paragraph is too much to absorb. I skim it."
5布鲁斯?弗里德曼经常撰写有关电脑在医学领域应用的文章。他在早些时候同样提到因特网如何改变了他的思维习惯。“稍长些的文章,不管是网上的还是已经出版的,我现在几乎已经完全丧失了阅读它们的能力。”在密歇根大学医学院长期任教的病理学家布鲁斯,弗里德曼在电话里告诉我,由于上网快速浏览文章的习惯,他的思维呈现出一种“碎读”特性。“我再也读不了《战争与和平》了。”弗里德曼承认,“我失去了这个本事。即便是一篇长达三四段的博客也难以消化。我只能略微浏览一下。”
6.Anecdotes alone don't prove much. And we still await the long-term neurological and psychological experiments that will provide a definitive picture of how the Internet use affects cognition. But a recently published study of online research habits, conducted by scholars from University College London, suggests that we may well be in the midst of a sea change in the way we read and think. As part of the five-year research program, the scholars examined computer logs' documenting the behavior of visitors to two popular research sites, one operated by the British Library and one by a UK educational consortium, that provide access to journal articles, e-books, and other sources of written information. They found that people using the sites exhibited "a form of skimming activity", hopping from one source to another and rarely returning to any source they'd already visited. They typically read no more than one or two pages of an article or book before they would "bounce" out to another site. Sometimes they'd save a long article, but there's no evidence that they ever went back and actually read it.
6仅仅是趣闻轶事还不能证明什么。我们仍在等待长期的神经学和心理学的实验,这将给因特网如何影响到我们的认识一个权威的定论。伦敦大学学院的学者做了一个网络研读习惯的研究并发表了研究结果。该研究指出,我们可能已经彻底置身于阅读与思考方式的巨变之中了。作为五年研究计划的一部分,学者们检测了计算机日志,它跟踪记录了两个流行的搜索网站的用户行为。其中一个网站是英国图书馆的,另一个是英国教育社团的,他们提供了期刊论文、电子书以及其他一些文献资源。他们发现,人们上网时呈现出“一种浮光掠影般的形式”,总是从一个资源跳到另一个资源,并且很少返回他们之前访问过的资源。他们常常还没读完一两页文章或书籍,就“弹”出来转到另一个网页去了。有时候他们会保存一个篇幅长的文章,但没有任何证据表明他们曾经返回去认真阅读。
7.Thanks to the ubiquity of text on the Internet, not to mention the popularity of text- messaging on cell phones, we may well be reading more today than we did in the 1970s or 1980s, when television was our medium of choice. But it's a different kind of reading, and behind it lies a different kind of thinking-perhaps even a new sense of the self.' "We are not only what we read," says Maryanne Wolf, a developmental psychologist at Tufts University and the author of Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain, "We are how we read." Wolf worries that the style of reading promoted by the Net, a style that puts "efficiency" and "immediacy" above all else, may be weakening our capacity for the kind of deep reading that emerged when an earlier technology, the printing press, made long and complex works of prose commonplace. When we read online, she says, we tend to become "mere decoders of information". Our ability to interpret text, to make the rich mental connections that form when we read deeply and without distraction, remains largely disengaged.
7多亏铺天盖地的网络文本,更别说当下时兴的手机短信,可供我们阅读的东西很可能比上世纪七八十年代要多了,那时,我们选择的媒体还是电视。但是,这已是另一种阅读模式,背后隐藏的是另一种思考方式—也许甚至是一种全新的自我意识。“不仅阅读的内容塑造了我们,”塔夫茨大学的发展心理学家、《普鲁斯特与鱿鱼:阅读思维的科学与故事》的作者玛丽安娜?沃尔夫说,“阅读方式也体现了我们自身。”沃尔夫担忧,网络所倡导的将“丰富”与“时效性”置于首位的阅读方式可能已经削弱了那种深度阅读能力。深度阅读能力的形成应归功于早期印刷术的发明,有了它,长而复杂的散文作品也相当普遍了。然而,她说,当我们在线阅读时,我们往往只是一“信息解码器”而已。我们对文句的设释,心无旁鹜、深度阅读时形成的丰富的精神联系,这些能力很大程度上已经消失了。
8.Reading, explains Wolf, is not an instinctive skill for human beings. It's not etched into our genes the way speech is. We have to teach our minds how to translate the symbolic characters we see into the language we understand. And the media or other technologies we use in learning and practicing the craft of reading play an important part in shaping the neural circuits inside our brains. Experiments demonstrate that readers of ideograms, such as the Chinese, develop a mental circuitry for reading that is very different from the circuitry found in those of us whose written language employs an alphabet. The variations extend across many regions of the brain, including those that govern such essential cognitive functions as memory and the interpretation of visual and auditory stimuli. We can expect as well that the circuits woven by our use of the Net will be different from those woven by our reading of books and other printed Works.
8沃尔夫认为,阅读并非人类与生俱来的技巧,它不像说话那样融人了我们的基因。我们得训练自己的大脑,让它学会如何将我们所看到的字符译解成自己可以理解的语言。而媒体或其他我们用于学习和练习阅读的技术在塑造我们大脑的神经电路中扮演着重要角色。实验表明,表意字读者(如中国人)为阅读所创建的神经电路和我们这些用字母语言的人有很大的区别。这种变化延伸到大脑的多个区域,包括那些支配诸如记忆、视觉设释和听觉刺激这样的关键认知功能的部位。我们可以预料,使用网络阅读形成的思维,一定也和通过阅读书籍及其他印刷品形成的思维不一样。9.Sometime in 1882, Friedrich Nietzsche bought a typewriter. His vision was failing, and keeping his eyes focused on a page had become exhausting and painful, often bringing on crushing headaches. He had been forced to curtail his writing, and he feared that he would soon have to give it up. The typewriter rescued him, at least for a time. Once he had mastered touch-typing, he was able to write with his eyes closed, using only the tips of his fingers. Words could once again flow from his mind to the page.
9  1882年,弗里德里希?尼采买了台打字机。此时的他,视力下降得厉害,长时间盯着一张纸会令他感觉疲惫、疼痛,还常常引起剧烈的头痛。他只得被迫缩减他的写作时间,并担心自己今后恐怕不得不放弃写作了。但打字机救了他,起码一度挽救过他。他终于熟能生巧,闭着眼睛只用手指尖也能打字—盲打。心中的词句又得以倾泻于纸页之上了。
But the machine had a subtler effect on his work. One of Nietzsche's friends, a composer, noticed a change in the style of his writing. His already terse prose had become even tighter, more telegraphic. "Perhaps you will through this instrument even ntake to a new idiom," the friend wrote in a letter, noting that, in his own work, his "`thoughts' in music and language often depend on the quality of pen and paper."
10然而,新机器也使其作品的风格发生了微妙的变化。尼采的一个作曲家朋友注意到他行文风格的改变。他那已经十分简练的行文变得更紧凑、‘更电文式了。 “或许就因为这个仪器,你甚至可能会喜欢上一个新短语,”这位朋友在一封信中提到,在他自己的作品中,他“在音乐和语言方面的‘思想’常常要依赖于笔和纸的质量”。
Unit5  An Alpine Divorce
1.John Bodman was a man who was always at one extreme or the other. This probably would have mattered little had he not married a wife whose nature was an exact duplicate of his own.
1约翰?伯德曼是一个常常走极端的人。这本来应该没什么,但可惜,他妻子的性格整个儿是他的翻版。
2.Doubtless there exists in this world precisely the right woman for any given man to marry and vice versa; but when you consider that one human being has the opportunity of being acquainted with only a few hundred people, and out of the few hundred that there are but a dozen or less whom one knows intimately, and out of the dozen, one or two close friends at most, it will easily be seen, when we remember the number of millions who inhabit this world, that probably, since the Earth was created, the right man has never yet met the right woman. The mathematical chances are all against such a meeting, and this is the reason that divorce courts exist. Marriage at best is but a compromise, and if two people happen to be united who are of an uncompromising nature there is bound to be trouble.
2毋庸置疑,对于任何一个男人,这世上总会有一个相当合适的女人能和他成家,反之亦然。但是如果你考虑一下:每个人仅有机会结识几百个人而已,在这几百个人之中熟知的只有那么干几人甚至更少,在这十几个人之中又最多只有一两个知心朋友;别忘了,居住在这世上的人有多少个百万,因此显而易见:自地球存在以来,这合适的男人极有可能从来就没有遇到过他那个合适的女人。。从概率上来讲,这样相遇的机会微乎其微,这也正是离婚法庭存在的原因。婚姻充其量不过是一种妥协,而如果恰好两个个性上互不妥协的人结合了,那就肯定会有麻烦。
3.In the lives of these two young people there was no middle distance. The result was bound to be either love or hate, and in the case of Mr. and Mrs. Bodman it was hate of the most bitter and egotistical kind.
3对于两个这样的年轻人来说,生活没有什么中间点,其结局注定要么是爱,要么是恨,而就伯德曼夫妇而言,他们到头来有的是那种最刻骨、最傲慢的恨。
4.In some parts of the world, incompatibility of temper is considered a just cause for obtaining a divorce, but in England no such subtle distinction is made, and so until the wife became criminal, or the man became both criminal and cruel, these two were linked together by a bond that only death could sever.' Nothing can be worse than this state of things, and the matter was only made the more hopeless by the fact that Mrs. Bodman lived a blameless life, while her husband was no worse than the majority of men. Perhaps, however, that statement held only up to a certain point, for John Bodman had reached a state of mind in which he resolved to get rid of his wife at all hazards. If he had been a poor man he would probably have deserted her, but he was rich, and a man cannot freely leave a prospering business because his domestic life happens not to be happy.
4在这世界上的某些地方,夫妻性情不合就能够成为离婚的正当理由,但是在英格兰,并没有如此微妙的区分,所以除非妻子犯罪,或丈夫犯罪并且为人残暴,否则两者的婚姻关系将一直维系下去,直至死神将他们分开。没有什么比这种事情更糟糕的了,而更令人绝望的是伯德曼太太为人无可厚非,而她丈夫也并不比一般男人差。然而,也许上面的表述只能说在某种程度上是正确的,因为约翰?伯德曼已经忍无可忍,下定决心不管付出什么代价也要摆脱他的妻子。如果他是个穷人,也许他会抛弃她,但是他很富有,而一个人不能因为家庭生活碰巧不幸就轻易放弃一份蒸蒸日上的事业。
5.When a man's mind dwells too much on one subject, no one can tell just how far he will go. The mind is such a delicate instrument that it is easily thrown off balance. Bodman's friends-for he had friends-claimed that his mind became unhinged. Whether John Bodman was sane or insane at the time he made up his mind to murder his wife, will never be known, but there was certainly craftiness in the method he devised to make the crime appear the result of an accident. Nevertheless, cunning is often a quality in a mind that has gone wrong.
5一个人的心思要是太专注于一件事情,没有人敢说他最后会做出什么来。大脑是如此脆弱的一个思维工具,以至于它容易失去平衡。伯德曼的朋友(他确实有几个朋友)事后声称他精神错乱。下定决心要谋杀妻子时,约翰?伯德曼的神智清醒还是不清醒,现在已无从知晓,但无疑他把谋杀方案设计成看起来像是意外事件,这种方式的确很狡猾。不过,一般来说,脑子有问题的人才狡猾。
6.Mrs. Bodman well knew how much her presence afflicted her husband, but her nature was as relentless as his, and her hatred of him was, if possible, more bitter than his hatred of her. Wherever he went she accompanied him, and perhaps the idea of murder would never have occurred to him if she had not been so persistent in forcing her presence upon him at all times and on all occasions. So, when he announced to her that he intended to spend the month of July in Switzerland, she said nothing, but made her preparations for the journey. On this occasion he did not protest, as was usual with him, and so to Switzerland this silent couple departed.
6伯德曼太太非常清楚,她的存在相当折磨她的丈夫,可她的冷酷无情跟他不相上下,而她对他的恨—有可能的话—恐怕比他对她的恨还更人骨。不管他去哪儿,她都跟着。要不是任何时间任何场合,她都要顽固地强行出现在他面前,他也许永远不会心生谋杀之念。就这样,他一跟她说打算七月份去瑞士度假,她二话不说就打点行李。往常他总会抗议,但这次没有,于是这对无话可说的夫妇动身去了瑞士。
7.There was a hotel near the mountain-tops which stood on a ledge over one of the great glaciers. It was a mile and a half above sea level, and it stood alone, reached by a toilsome road that zigzagged up the mountain for six miles. There was a wonderful view of snow-peaks and glaciers fro钾the verandahs of this hotel, and in the neighborhood were many picturesque walks to points more or less dangerous.
7有一间旅馆位于一座很高的冰川的脊架上,离山峰只有几步之遥.旅馆海拔一点五英里,孑然独立,仅有一条长六英里、盘旋而上的崎岖山路可以到达.在旅馆的回廊可以观赏到雪峰和冰川的美景。旅馆附近小道遍布,沿路风景如画,但通往的地点多少都带点儿危险。
8.John Bodman knew the hotel well, and in happier days he had been intimately acquainted with the vicinity. Now that the thought of murder arose in his mind, a certain spot two miles distant from this inn continually haunted him. It was a point of view overlooking everything, and its extremity was protected by a low and crumbling wall. He arose one morning at four o'clock, slipped unnoticed out of the hotel, and went to this point, which was locally named the Hanging Outlook. His memory had served him well. It is exactly the spot, he said to himself. The mountain which rose up behind it was wild and precipitous. There were no inhabitants nearby to overlook the place. The distant hotel was hidden by a shoulder of rock.
8约翰?伯德曼对这家旅馆很熟悉,以前日子还挺幸福的时候他常来这一带。如今既然已生谋杀之念,他就总是不由自主地想起距离客栈两英里的某个地方。从那地方可以俯瞰周围,它的尽头被一堵破败的矮墙挡住。一天凌晨四点,他偷偷溜出旅馆,来到了这儿—当地人叫“悬望角”。这儿和他印象中的丝毫不差。就是这里了,他对自己说。“悬望角”背靠的山荒芜而陡峭,附近也无人居住,所以没人会俯视这里。而且远处的旅馆还被山肩遮住了。
9.One glance over the crumbling wall at the edge was generally sufficient for a visitor of even the strongest nerves. There was a sheer drop" of more than a mile straight down, and at the distant bottom were jagged rocks and stunted trees that looked, in the blue haze, like shrubbery.
9站在破墙边沿朝外望,胆子再大的游客也不敢看第二眼。峭壁陡直垂下约有一英里,底下怪石林立,杂树丛生,蓝色雾霭笼革下,看起来就像灌木丛。
"This is the spot," said the man to himself, "and tomorrow morning is the time."
10“就是这里了!”他想,“而且就明天早上!”
11.John Bodman had planned his crime as grimly and relentlessly, and as coolly, as he had ever concocted a deal on the stock exchange. There was no thought in his mind of mercy for his unaware victim. His hatred had carried him far.
11约翰?伯德曼冷酷,无情,沉着地谋划着他的罪行,一如他在证券交易所策划交易。对于那位还蒙在鼓里的受害者,他心中没有一丝怜悯。怨恨让他丧失了所有理智。
12.The next morning after breakfast, he said to his wife: "I intend to take a walk in the mountains. Do you wish to come with me?"
12第二天,用过早餐,他对妻子说:“我想去山里面走走。你想不想跟我一起去?”
13.`Yes," she answered briefly.
13“好啊,”她回答得很干脆。
"Very well, then," he said, "I shall be ready at nine o'clock."
14“那就好,”他说:“我九点出门。”
15.At that hour they left the hotel together, to which he planned to return alone shortly. They spoke no word to each other on their way to the Hanging Outlook. The path was practically level, skirting the mountains, for the Hanging Outlook was not much higher above the sea than the hotel.
15九点整,两个人一起出了旅馆。按计划,用不了多久他就会一个人回来。一路上谁也没说话,只是在山间绕来绕去,基本上是平路,因为“悬望角”的海拔和旅馆差不多。
16.John Bodman had formed no fixed plan for his procedure when the place was reached. He resolved to be guided by circumstances. Now and then a strange fear arose in his mind that she might cling to him and possibly drag him over the precipice with her. He found himself wondering whether she had any premonition of her fate, and one of his reasons for not speaking was the fear that a tremor in his voice might possibly arouse her suspicions. He resolved that his action should be sharp and sudden, that she might have no chance either to help herself or to drag him with her. Of her screams in that desolate region he had no fear. No one could reach the spot except from the hoteL and no one that morning had left the premises.
16到了目的地后,约翰?伯德曼也没有什么固定计划,他决定伺机而行。他心中时不时生出一种恐惧,害怕她会死死地拽住自己,一起坠下悬崖。他不自觉地想:厄运当头,她是否已有预感?他一直没有说话,就是怕自己颤抖的声音会引起她的怀疑。他决心要突然行动,千脆利落,让她无法自救,更没机会把他也拉下去。至于她要尖叫,他倒是一点也不害怕。因为这地方人迹罕至,只有从旅馆有一条路可以过来,而他知道那天早晨没有人离开那幢楼。
17.Curiously enough. when they came within sight of the Hanging Outlook, Mrs. Bodman stopped and shuddered. Bodman looked at her through the narrow slits of his veiled eyes, and wondered again if she had any suspicion. No one can tell, when two people walk closely together, what unconscious communication one mind may have with Another.
17这时“悬望角”已经在望了,伯德曼太太却停住了脚步,还打了个冷战,这着实令人怀疑。伯德曼先生眼睛微眯,审视着太太,又开始怀疑她是否已有所警觉。没人敢说,??两个人这样紧挨着走路,他们的大脑之间会有什么无意识的交流。
"What is the matter?" he asked gruffly. "Are you tired?"
18“怎么了?”他生硬地问道,“累了?”
19."John," she cried, with a gasp in her voice, calling him by his Christian name for the first time in years, "don't you think that if you had been kinder to me at first, things might have been different?"
19“约翰,”她叫道,声音中带着喘息,好多年没有叫过他的教名了,“你不觉得如果你当初对我好点儿,事情也许会不一样?”
20."It seems to me," he answered, not looking at her, "that it is rather late in the day for discussing that question."
20“我觉得,”他答道,眼睛看着别处,“现在讨论这个问题已经太晚了。”
“I have much to regret," she said quaveringly. "Have you nothing?"
21“我有很多遗憾,”她声音发颤,“你就没有?”
`No," he answered.                 22“没有,”他答道。
23."Very well," replied his wife, with the usual hardness returning to her voice, "I was merely giving you a chance."
23“很好,”伯德曼太太答道,语气又恢复了一贯的生硬,“我只是想给你一次机会。”
Her husband looked at her suspiciously.
24她丈夫盯着她,心生疑虑。
25."What do you mean?" he asked. "Giving me a chance? I want no chance nor anyhing else from you. A man accepts nothing from one he hates. My feelings towards you are, I imagine, no secret to you. We are tied together, and you have done your best to make the bondage insupportable."
25“你什么意思?”他问,“给我机会?我不要你的机会,也不要你别的什么。男人不会接受他憎恨的人的任何东西。我想我对你的感觉对你来说不是秘密。我们是硬绑在一起的,而你更是想方设法让这份关系变得让人忍无可忍。”
26."Yes," she answered, with her eyes on the ground,"we are tied together-we are tied together!"
26“没错,”她答道,眼睛看着地上,“我们是绑在一起的—我们是绑在一起的!”
27.She repeated these words under her breath as they walked the few remaining steps to the Outlook. Bodman sat down upon the crumbling wall. The woman dropped her alpenstock on the rock, and walked nervously to and fro, clasping and unclasping her hands. Her husband caught his breath as the terrible moment drew near.
27她低声反复嘀咕着这句话,两人走完剩下的几步来到了“悬望角”。伯德曼坐在那摇摇欲坠的破墙上。他妻子则把登山杖扔在了石头上,心神不宁地走来走去,拳头摄了又松,松了又撰。随着那可怕时刻的临近,他屏住了呼吸。
28.."Why do you walk about like a wild animal?" he cried. "Come here and sit down beside me, and be still."
28“你干嘛像个野兽走来走去?”他叫道,“过来坐我旁边,安静点。”
29.She faced him with a light he had never before seen in her eyes-a light of insanity and of hatred.
29她面对着他,眼中闪耀着一种他从未见过的光芒—一种疯狂和僧恨的光芒。
30."I walk like a wild animal," she said, "because I am one. You spoke a moment ago of your hatred of me, but you are a man, and your hatred is nothing to mine. Bad as you are, much as you wish to break the bond which ties us together, there are still things which I know you would not stoop to. There is no thought of murder in heart, but there is in mine."
30她说:“我走起来像个野兽,因为我本来就是。你刚才说了你对我的恨,但你是男的,比起我的恨你的不值一提。尽管你人很坏,非常想了断这份将我们绑在一起的关系,但我知道有些事你还是不会去做的。我知道你没想过谋杀我,但是我想过。”
31.The man nervously clutched the stone beside him, and gave a guilty start as she mentioned murder.
31听到谋杀,他不由得一惊,心里有些负罪感,双手紧张地抓着身旁的石头。
32."Yes," she continued, "I have told all my friends in England that I believed you intended to murder me in Switzerland."
32“是的,”她接着说,“我已经跟我英格兰的所有朋友说我肯定你打算在瑞士谋杀我。”
"Good Lord!" he cried. "How could you say such a thing?"
33“我的上帝!你怎么能说出这样的话?”他大叫。
34."I say it to show how much I hate you-how much I am prepared to give up for revenge. I have warned the people at the hotel, and when we left two men followed us. The proprietor tried to persuade me not to accompany you. In a few moments those two men will come in sight of the Outlook. Tell them, if you think they will believe you, that it was an accident."
34“我这么说是要让你瞧瞧我有多恨你,让你瞧瞧为了报复你我准备付出什么样的代价。我已经让旅馆的人提高警惕,我们出门时就有两个人跟着我们。旅馆老板还劝我别跟你来。再过一会儿那两个人就会看到“悬望角”了。(此文来自袁勇兵博客)如果你觉得他们会相信你的话,那你就跟他们说只是个意外吧。”
35.The mad woman tore from the front of her dress shreds of lace and scattered them around. Bodman started up to his feet, crying, "What are you about?" But before he could move toward her she threw herself over the wall, and went shrieking and whirling down the awful abyss.
35这个疯女人一把扯碎了裙子前片上的花边,并撒落一地。伯德曼站起身,喊道:“你在做什么?”但是,他还没来得及靠近她,她就已经跳过矮墙,尖叫着,翻滚着,掉进了那令人生畏的万丈深渊。
36.The next moment two men came hurriedly round the edge of the rock, and found the man standing alone. Even in his bewilderment, he realized that if he told the truth he would not be believed.
36不一会儿,有两个人急急忙忙来到石头边,发现伯德曼一个人愣在那里。尽管内心一团乱麻,但他知道就算实话实说也没人会相信他。
Unit6 Inaugural Address
Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, reverend clergy, fellow citizens, we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom—symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning—signifying renewal, as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three quarters ago.   
约翰逊副总统,主持人先生,首席大法官先生,艾森豪威尔总统,尼克松副总统,杜鲁门总统,尊敬的牧师,我的公民同胞们,今天我们庆祝的不是政党的胜利,而是自由的胜利。这象征着一个结束,也象征着一个开端;意味着延续也意味着变革。因为我已在你们和全能的上帝面前,宣读了我们的先辈在大约175年前拟定的庄严誓言。
The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe—the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God. 
当今的世界已经大不相同。人类的巨手掌握的力量既能消除人间一切形式的贫困,也能毁灭一切形式的人类生命。但我们的先辈为之奋斗的那些革命信念,在世界各地仍然处于争论之中。这个信念就是:人的权利并非来自国家的慷慨,而是来自上帝的恩赐。
We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.
今天,我们不敢忘记我们是第一次革命的继承者。让我在此时此地告诉我们的朋友,同样也告诉我们的敌人:这支火炬已经传递给新一代美国人。这一代人出生在本世纪,在战争中受过锻炼,在艰难困苦的和平时期受过磨炼,他们为我国悠久的传统感到自豪—他们不愿目睹或听任人权渐趋毁灭,对于这些人权我国一向坚定不移,而且在当今国内和世界范围我们也同样全力拥护。
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty. 
  让每个国家都知道—不论它希望我们繁荣还是希望我们衰落—为确保自由的存在和胜利,我们将付出任何代价,承受任何重负,应付任何艰难,支持任何朋友,反抗任何敌人。
This much we pledge—and more. 
  这些就是我们的誓言—而且还有更多。
To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do—for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder. 
  对那些和我们有着共同文化和精神渊源的老盟友,我们保证待以挚友那样的忠诚。如果我们团结一致,就能在许多合作事业中无往不胜。如果我们分歧对立,就会一事无成—因为我们不敢在争吵不休、四分五裂时迎接强大的挑战。
To those new States whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom—and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside. 
  对那些我们欢迎其加入到自由行列中来的新国家,我们格守我们的誓言:决不让一种更为残酷的暴政来取代一种消失的殖民统治。我们并不总是指望他们会支持我们的观点。但我们始终希望看到他们坚强地维护自己的自由—而且要记住,在历史上,凡愚教地狐假虎威者,终必葬身虎口。
To those peoples in the huts and villages across the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required—not because the Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich. 
  对世界各地身居茅舍和乡村、为摆脱普遍贫困而斗争的人们,我们保证尽最大努力帮助他们自立,不管需要花多长时间。之所以这样做,并不是因为共产党可能正在这样做,也不是因为我们需要他们的选票,而是因为这样做是正确的。自由社会如果不能帮助众多的穷人,也就无法保全那些少数的富人。
To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge—to convert our good words into good deeds—in a new alliance for progress—to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house. 
  对我国南面的姐妹共和国,我们提出一项特殊的保证:在争取进步的新同盟中,把我们善意的话变为善意的行动,帮助自由的人们和自由的政府摆脱贫困的枷锁。但是,这种充满希望的和平革命决不可以成为敌对国家的牺牲品。我们要让所有邻国都知道,我们将和他们在一起,反对在美洲任何地区进行侵略和颠覆活动。让所有其他国家都知道,本半球的人仍然想做自己家园的主人。
To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support—to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective—to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak—and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run. 
  对联合国,主权国家的世界性议事机构,我们在战争手段大大超过和平手段的时代里最后的、最美好的希望所在,我们重申予以支持:防止它仅仅成为谩骂的场所;加强它对新生国家和弱小国家的保护;扩大它的行使法令的管束范围。
Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request: that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.最后,对那些与我们作对的国家,我们提出一个要求而不是一项保证:在科学释放出可怕的破坏力量,把全人类卷人预谋的或意外的自我毁灭的深渊之前,让我们双方重新开始寻求和平。
We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed. 
我们不敢以怯弱来引诱他们。因为只有当我们毫无疑问地拥有足够的军备,我们才能毫无疑问地确信永远不会使用这些军备。
But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course—both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war. 
但是,这两个强大的国家集团都无法从目前所走的道路中得到安慰—发展现代武器所需的费用使双方负担过重,致命的原子武器的不断扩散理所当然使双方忧心忡忡。但是,双方却争着改变那制止人类发动最后战争的不稳定的恐怖均势。
So let us begin anew—remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate. 
因此让我们双方重新开始—双方都要牢记,礼貌并不意味着怯弱,诚意永远有待于验证。让我们决不要由于畏惧而谈判。但我们决不能畏惧谈判。
Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us. 
让双方都来探讨使我们团结起来的问题,而不要纠缠那些使我们分裂的问题。
Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms—and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations. 
让双方首次为军备检查和军备控制制订认真而又明确的提案,把毁灭他国的绝对力量置于所有国家的绝对控制之下。
Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce. 
让双方寻求利用科学的神奇力量,而不是激发科学的恐怖因素。让我们一起探索星球,征服沙漠,根除疾患,开发深海,并鼓励艺术和商业的发展。
Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah—to "undo the heavy burdens ... and to let the oppressed go free." 
让双方团结起来,在全世界各个角落倾听以赛亚的训令—“卸下沉重的负担,让被欺压者得到自由。”
And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved. 
如果合作的滩头阵地能逼退猜忌的丛林,那么就让双方共同作一次新的努力—不是建立一种新的均势,而是创造一个新的法治世界,在这个世界中,强者公正,弱者安全,和平将得到维护。
All this will not be finished in the first 100 days. Nor will it be finished in the first 1,000 days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.
所有这一切不可能在今后一百天内完成,也不可能在今后一千天或者在本届政府任期内完成,甚至也许不可能在我们的有生之年内完成。但是,让我们开始吧。
In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe. 
同胞们,我们方针的最终成败与其说掌握在我手中,不如说掌握在你们手中。自从我国建立以来,每一代美国人都曾受到召唤去证明他们对国家的忠诚。响应召唤而献身的美国青年的坟墓遍及全球。
Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation"—a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself. 
现在,号角已再次吹响-不是召唤我们拿起武器,虽然我们需要武器。不是召唤我们去作战,虽然我们严阵以待。它召唤我们为迎接黎明而肩负起慢长斗争的重任,年复一年,“从希望中得到欢乐,在磨难中保持耐性,”对付人类共同的敌人-专制、贫困、疾病和战争本身。
Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?为反对这些敌人,确保人类更为丰裕的生活,我们能够组成一个包括东西南北各方的全球大联盟吗?你们愿意参加这一历史性的努力吗?
In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. 
在漫长的世界历史中,只有少数几代人在自由处于最危急的时刻被赋予保卫自由的责任。在这一责任面前,我绝不会退缩,我欢迎它。我不相信我们中间有人想同其他人或其他时代的人交换位置。我们为这一努力所奉献的精力、信念和忠诚,将照亮我们的国家和所有为国效劳的人,而这火焰发出的光芒定能照亮全世界。
And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country. 
因此,美国同胞们,不要问国家能为你们做些什么,而要问你们能为国家做些什么。
My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. 
全世界的公民们,不要问美国将为你们做些什么,些什么。而要问我们能共同为人类的自由做
Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.
最后,不论你们是美国公民还是其他国家的公民,请用我们所要求于你们的力量和牺牲的高标准来要求我们。问心无愧是我们唯一可靠的奖赏,历史是我们行动的最终裁判,让我们走向前去,引导我们所热爱的国家。我们祈求上帝的福佑和帮助,但我们知道,上帝在尘世的工作必定是我们自己的工作。
Unit7 the poetry of architecture
1 The science of Architecture, followed out to its full extent, is one of the noblest of those which have reference only to the creations of human minds. It is not merely a science of the rule and compass, it does not consist only in the observation of just rule or of fair proportion; it is , or ought to be, a science of feeling more than of rule, a majesty of a building depend upon its pleasing certain prejudices of the eye, than upon its rousing certain trains of meditation in the mind, it will show in a moment how many intricate question of feeling are involved in the raising of an edifice; it will convince us of the truth of proposition, which might at first have appeared startling, that no man can be an architect who is not a metaphysician.
建筑科学,如果得以充分体现的话,是只与人类心智创造有关的科学中最高贵的科学之一。它不仅仅是尺子与圆规的科学,不仅仅需要遵守恰当的规则或合适的比例,它是或者应该是,一门重感情胜过于规则的科学,它更多的是服务于心灵,而非眼睛。如果我们明白,一座建筑的美和雄伟,很大程度上取决于它能引发心灵的一系列沉思,而非来自于它能满足视觉上的某种偏爱,我们很快就会发现,一座建筑的兴建会涉及多少错综复杂的情感问题。我们会因此而相信一个乍然一听不无惊人的论点,那就是,一个人如果不是玄学家,就无法成为建筑师。
2  To the illustration of the department of this noble science which may be designated The Poetry of Architecture, this and some future articles will be dedicated. It is this peculiarity of the art which constitutes its nationality;And it will be found as interesting as it is useful, to trace in the distinctive characters of the architecture of nations, not only its adaptation to the situation and climate in which it has arisen, but its strong similarity to, and connection with, the prevailing turn of mind by which the nation who first employed it is distinguished.
对这一高尚科学进行说明的文本及今后要写的一些文章都将收入进我暂命名为《建筑之诗意》一书中。正是这一艺术特性构成了它的民族性。建筑不仅与其周围的环境和气候相适应,也与率先采用这种风格的民族的主流性情极其相似,密切关联,这些都可以从各民族的建筑特征中得以追溯,我们会发现,这种追溯既有益,亦有趣。
3 I consider the task I have imposed upon myself the more necessary, because this department of the science, perhaps regarded by some who have no ideas beyond stone and mortar as chimerical, and by others who think nothing necessary but truth and proportion as useless, is at a miserably low ebb in England.And what is the consequence?We have Corinthian columns placed beside pilasters of no order at all, surmounted by monstrosified pepper-boxes, Gothic in form and Grecian in detail, in a building nominally and peculiarly “National”; we have Swiss cottages, falsely and calumniously so entitled, dropped in the brick-fields round the metropolis; and we have staring square-windowed, flat-roofed gentlemen’s seat, of the lath and plaster, mock-magnificent, Regent’t park description, rising on the woody promontories of Derwent Water.
在我看来,赋予自己这项任务显得尤为重要,因为这门科学在英国正处于可悲的低谷之中:在那些只知石头和砂浆的人看来,它是虚妄幻想;在那些满脑袋只有事实和比例的人看来,它毫无用处。那么结果是什么呢?我们看到科林斯式的柱子竖立在杂乱无章的壁柱旁边,上面是怪异的胡椒罐式的塔顶,形式上是哥特式的,细节上是希腊式的,这种建筑美其名曰别具“民族特色”;我们看到所谓的“瑞士小屋”散落在周围的一片砖砌的房子中实在是糟践了这一名称;我们看到那些平顶、有着显眼的方窗,用条板和石灰建造而成的乡绅别墅,它们仿照摄政王公园的样式,冒充宏伟的气势,耸立在德文特湖林木丛生的岬角上。
4 How deeply is it to be regretted, how much is it to be wondered at, that, in a country whose school of painting, though degraded by its system of meretricious coloring, and disgraced by hosts of would-be imitators of inimitable individuals, is yet raised by the distinguished talent of those individuals to a place of well-deserved honor, and the studios of whose sculptors are filled with designs of the most pure simplicity, and most perfect animation;
the school of architecture should be so miserably debased!
多么令人惋惜,多么令人惊异啊。在这个国家,绘画学派虽然受到华而不实的着色方法的损害,并因成群试图东施效颦的模仿者而蒙羞,但在那些天分超群的画家的带动下,绘画享受着当之无愧的荣耀,雕塑家的工作室里随处可见最朴素却最富有生气的设计。
而建筑界竟会堕落到如此悲惨的境地!
5 There are, however, many reasons for a fact so lamentable.In the first place, the patrons of architecture (I am speaking of all classes of buildings, from the lowest to the highest) are a more numerous and less capable class than those of painting…There, the power is generally diffused.Every citizen may box himself up in as barbarous a tenement as suits his taste or inclination;The architect is his vassal, and must permit him not only to criticize, but to perpetrate.The palace or the nobleman’s seat may be raised in good taste, and become the admiration of a nation; but the influence of their owner is terminated by the boundary of his estate: he has no command over the adjacent scenery,And the possessor of every 30 acres around him has him at his mercy.The streets of our cities are examples of the effects of this clashing of different tastes; and they are either remarkable for the utter absence of all attempt at embellishment, or disgraced by every variety of abomination…
不过,现实之所以令人惋惜,原因是多方面的。首先,建筑(我指的是所有等级的建筑,从最低等级到最高等级)的出资人,相比于绘画的赞助者来说,人数更庞大,能力却相形见绌。在建筑领域,权利总体上是分散的。每个公民可以按照自己的品味或爱好,住进粗鄙的房屋里。建筑师是他的仆从,不仅必须听任他批评,还得容忍他胡作非为。宫殿或贵族的宅邸也许能建出好品味,可以成为举国欣赏的对象,但这些建筑的主人的影响力到了地产的边界便中断了:他无法控制周边的景观。他住宅周围的人,只要拥有30英亩土地,就能对他随意摆布。我们的城市街道就体现了不同品位相互冲突的结果:他们或是因为毫无装饰之企图而引人注目,或是因为布满各种面目可憎的建筑而有失脸面。。。。。。
6 I shall attempt, therefore, to endeavor to illustrate the principle from the neglect of which these abuses have arisen; That of unity of feeling, the basis of all grace, the essence of all beauty. We shall consider the architecture of nations as it is influenced by their feelings and manners, as it is connected with the scenery in which it is found, and with the skies under which it was erected;We shall be led as much to the street and the cottage as to the temple and the tower;And shall be more interested in buildings raised by feeling, than in those corrected by rule.We shall commence with the lower class of edifices, proceeding from the roadside to the village, and from the village to the city; and, if we succeed in directing the attention of a single individual more directly to this most interesting department of the science of architecture, we shall not have written in vain.
因此,我要尽力尝试对建筑原则进行阐释。正是由于漠视了原则,才会产生这些恶果。建筑的原则是感情的统一,这是所有优雅的基础、所有美得本质。当我们考察民族建筑时,应该考虑到它受到了人类情感和风俗的影响,它关乎周围的景致,关乎其下的那片天空。我们不仅应该考察殿堂与高塔,也要考察街道和村舍。我们应该将兴趣更多的投向用感情搭建而成的建筑,而不是用规则制定出来的建筑。我们应该从建筑的低级层次开始,从路边到村庄,再从村庄到城市;如果我们能够成功地进行引导,哪怕只有一个人为此更加直接的注意到建筑学中这最为有趣的领域,我们就没有白费笔墨。
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