参考来源:网络 作者:秩名 更新时间:2016年06月21日 14时52分
1 Hurricanes, house fires, cancer, whitewater rafting accidents, plane crashes, vicious attacks in dark alleyways. Nobody asks for any of it. But to their surprise, many people find that enduring such a harrowing ordeal ultimately changes them for the better.Their refrain might go something like this: "I wish it hadn't happened, but I'm a better person for it."
2 We love to hear the stories of people who have been transformed by their tribulations, perhaps because they testify to a bona fide type of psychological truth, one that sometimes gets lost amid endless reports of disaster: There seems to be a built-in human capacity to flourish under the most difficult circumstances. Positive responses to profoundly disturbing experiences are not limited to the toughest or the bravest.In fact, roughly half the people who struggle with adversity say that their lives subsequently in some ways improved.
3 This and other promising findings about the life-changing effects of crises are the province of the new science of post-traumatic growth. This fledgling field has already proved the truth of what once passed as bromide: What doesn't kill you can actually make you stronger. Post-traumatic stress is far from the only possible outcome. In the wake of even the most terrifying experiences, only a small proportion of adults become chronically troubled. More commonly, people rebound-or even eventually thrive.
4 Those who weather adversity well are living proof of the paradoxes of happiness.We need more than pleasure to live the best possible life. Our contemporary quest for happiness has shriveled to a hunt for bliss-a life protected from bad feelings,free from pain and confusion.
5 This anodyne definition of well-being leaves out the better half of the story, the rich, full joy that comes from a meaningful life. It is the dark matter of happiness,the ineffable quality we admire in wise men and women and aspire to cultivate in our own lives. It turns out that some of the people who have suffered the most, who have been forced to contend with shocks they never anticipated and to rethink the meaning of their lives, may have the most to tell us about that profound and intensely fulfilling journey that philosophers used to call the search for "the good life".
6 This broader definition of good living blends deep satisfaction and a profound connection to others through empathy. It is dominated by happy feelings but seasoned also with nostalgia and regret. "Happiness is only one among many values in human life," contends Laura King, a psychologist at the University of Missouri in Columbia. Compassion, wisdom, altruism, insight, creativity-sometimes only the trials of adversity can foster these qualities, because sometimes only drastic situations can force us to take on the painful process of change. To live a full human life, a tranquil, carefree existence is not enough. We also need to grow-and sometimes growing hurts.
7 In a dark room in Queens, New York, 31-year-old fashion designer Tracy Cyr believed she was dying. A few months before, she had stopped taking the powerful immune-suppressing drugs that kept her arthritis in check. She never anticipated what would happen: a withdrawal reactions that eventually left her in total body agony and neurological meltdown. The slightest movement-trying to swallow, fqr example-was excruciating. Even the pressure of her cheek on the pillow was almost unbearable.
8 Cyr is no wimp-diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis at the age of two, she had endured the symptoms and the treatments (drugs, surgery) her whole life. But this time,she was way6 past her limits, and nothing her doctors did seemed to help. Either the disease was going to kill her or, pretty soon, she felt she might have to kill herself.
9 As her sleepless nights wore on, though, her suicidal thoughts began to be interrupted by new feelings of gratitude. She was still in agony, but a new consciousness grew stronger each night: an awesome sense of liberation, combined with an all-encompassing feeling of sympathy and compassion. "I felt stripped of everything I'd ever identified myself with," she said six months later. "Everything I thought I'd known or believed in was useless-time, money, self-image, perception. Recognizing that was so freeing."
10 Within a few months, she began to be able to move more freely, thanks to a cocktail of steroids and other drugs. She says now there's no question that her life is better. "l felt I had been shown the secret of life and why we're here: to be happy and to nurture other life. It's that simple."
11 Her mind-blowing experience came as a total surprise. But that feeling of transformation is in some ways typical, says Rich Tedeschi, a professor of psychology at the University of North Carolina in Charlotte who coined the term "post-traumatic growth". His studies of people who have endured extreme events, like combat, violent crime or sudden serious illness show that most feel dazed and anxious in the immediate aftermath; they are preoccupied with the idea that their lives have been shattered. A few are haunted long afterward by memory problems, sleep trouble and similar symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder 7. But Tedeschi and others have found that for many people-perhaps even the majority-life ultimately becomes richer and more Gratifying.
12 Something similar happens to many people who experience a terrifying physical threat. In that moment, our sense of invulnerability is pierced, and the self-protective mental armor that normally stands between us and our perceptions of the world is torn away. Our everyday life scripts-our habits, self-perceptions and assumptions-go out the window, and we are left with a raw experience of the world.
13 Still, actually implementing these changes, as well as fully coming to terms with a new reality, usually takes conscious effort. Being willing and able to take on this process is one of the major differences between those who grow through adversity and those who are destroyed by it. The people who find value in adversity aren't the toughest or the most rational. What makes them different is that they are able to incorporate what happened into the story of their own life.
14 Eventually, they may find themselves freed in ways they never imagined.Survivors say they have become more tolerant and forgiving of others, capable of bringing peace to formerly troubled relationships. They say that material ambitions suddenly seem silly and the pleasures of friends and family paramount-and that the crisis allowed them to recognize life in line with their new priorities.
15 People who have grown from adversity often feel much less fear, despite the frightening things they've been through. They are surprised by their own strength, confident that they can handle whatever else life throws at them. "People don't say that what they went through was wonderful," says Tedeschi. "They weren't meaning to grow from it. They were just trying to survive. But in retrospect, what they gained was more than they ever anticipated."
16 In his recent book Satisfaction, Emory University psychiatrist Gregory Berns points to extreme endurance athletes who push themselves to their physical limits for days at a time. They cycle through the same sequence of sensations as do trauma survivors: self-loss, confusion and, finally, a new sense of mastery. For ultramarathoners, who regularly run 100-mile races that last more than 24 hours, vomiting and hallucinating are normal. After a day and night of running without stopping or sleeping, competitors sometimes forget who they are and what they are doing.
17 For a more common example of growth through adversity, look to one of life's biggest challenges: parenting. Having a baby has been shown to decrease levels of happiness. The sleep deprivation and the necessity of putting aside personal pleasure in order to care for an infant mean that people with newborns are more likely to be depressed and find their marriage on the rocks. Nonetheless, over the long haul, raising a child is one of the most rewarding and meaningful of all human undertakings. The short-term sacrifice of happiness is outweighed by other benefits, like fulfillment, altruism and the chance to leave a meaningful Legacy.
18 Ultimately, the emotional reward can compensate for the pain and difficulty of adversity. This perspective does not cancel out what happened, but it puts it all in a different context: that it's possible to live an extraordinary rewarding life even within the constraints and struggles we face. In some form or other, says King, we all must go through this realization. "You're not going to be the person you thought you were, but here's who you are going to be instead-and that turns out to be a pretty great life."
Unit2  Commercialization and Changes in Sports
1.Throughout history sports have been used as forms of public entertainment. However,sports have never been so heavily packaged, promoted, presented and played as commercial products as they are today. Never before have decisions about sports and the social relationships connected with sports been so clearly influenced by economic factors. The bottom line has replaced the goal line for many people, and sports no longer exist simply for the interests of the athletes themselves. Fun and "good games" are now defined in terms of gate receipts, concessions revenues, the sale of media rights, market shares, rating points, and advertising potential. Then, what happens to sports when they become commercialized? Do they change when they become dependent on gate receipts and the sale of media rights?
1在整个历史长河中,人们都是把体育当作某种形式的公众娱乐。然而,体育从未像今天这样作为一种商业产品被如此盛大地包装、推广、呈现和开展,有关体育的决策以及与体育相关的社会关系也同样从未如此显然地受到商业因素的影响。对许多人来说,账本底线已取代了球门线,体育不再只是为了运动员们自身的兴趣而存在。今天,乐趣和“好比赛”的定义取决于门票收入、特许权收人、媒体传播权的出售、市场份额、收视率以及广告潜力。那么,当体育变得商业化时,它会怎样?当体育变得依赖于门票收人和媒体传播权的出售时,它会发生变化吗?2.We know that whenever any sport is converted into commercial entertainment, it success depends on spectator appeal. Although spectators often have a variety of motives underlying their attachment to sports, their interest in any sporting event is usually related to a combination of three factors: the uncertainty of an event's outcome, the risk or financial rewards associated with participating in an event,and the anticipated display of excellence or heroics by the athletes. In other words, when spectators refer to a "good game" or an "exciting contest", they are usually talking about one in which the outcome was in doubt until the last minutes or seconds, one in which the stakes' were so high that athletes were totally committed to and engrossed in the action, or one in which there were a number of excellent or "heroic" performances. When games or matches contain all three of these factors, they are remembered and discussed for a long time.
3.Commercialization has not had a dramatic effect on the format and goals of most sports. In spite of the influence of spectators, what has occurred historically is that sports have maintained their basic format. Innovations have been made within this framework, rather than completely dismantling the design of a game. For example, the commercialization of the Olympic Games has led to minor rule changes in certain events, but the basic structure of each Olympic sport has remained much the same as it was before the days of corporate endorsements and the sale of television rights.
4.Commercialization seems to affect the orientations of sport participants more than it does the format and goals of sports. To make money on a sport, it's necessary to attract a mass audience to buy tickets or watch the events on television. Attracting and entertaining a mass audience is not easy because it's made up of many people who don't have technical knowledge about the complex athletic skills and strategies used by players and coaches. Without this technical knowledge, people are easily impressed by things extrinsic to the game or match itself; they get taken in by hype. During the event itself they often focus on things they can easily understand. They enjoy situations in which players take risks and face clear physical danger; they are attracted to players who are masters of dramatic expression or who are willing to go beyond and their normal physical limits to the point of endangering their safety and well-being; and they like to see players committed to victory no matter what the personal cost.
4看来,与运动的结构和目的相比,商业化更多的是影响运动参与者的取向。若要通过一项运动盈利,就必须吸引广大观众买门票或在电视上观看比赛。吸引和娱乐广大观众并非易事,因为这些观众中有很多人没有技木性的知识,因而不懂得运动员和教练采取的复杂竞技技巧和策略。由于缺乏这些技术性知识,人们容易受到运动或赛事之外的东西的影响,容易受到天花乱坠的宜传的迷惑。在比赛期间,他们经常关注那些他们容易理解的事情。他们喜欢那种运动员冒险并明显面临身体危险的情境,他们喜爱那些搜长戏剧化表现或者愿意超越正常的生理极限以致威胁到自己的安全和健康的运动员。他们喜欢看到运动员不惜代价,立志求胜。5.For example, when people lack technical knowledge about basketball, they are more likely to talk about a single slam dunks than about the consistently flawless defense that enabled a team to win a game.Similarly, those who know little about the technical aspects of ice skating are more entertained by triple and quadruple jumps than by routines carefully choreographed and practiced until they are smooth and flawless.Without dangerous jumps, naive spectators get bored. They like athletes who project' exciting or controversial personas,and they often rate performances in terms of dramatic expression leading to dramatic results.They want to see athletes occasionally collapse as they surpass physical limits, not athletes who know their limits so well they can successfully compete for years without going beyond them.
6.When a sport comes to depend on entertaining a mass audience, those involved in the sport often revise their ideas about what is important in sport. This revision usually involves a shift in emphasis from what might be called an aesthetic orientation to a heroic orientation In fact, the people in sport may even refer to games or matches as "show-time", an  iey may refer to themselves as entertainers as well as athletes. This does not mean that aesthetic orientations disappear, but it does mean that they often take a back seat to the heroic actions that entertain spectators who don't know enough to appreciate the strategic and technical aspects of the game or match.
7.As the need to please naive audiences becomes greater, so does the emphasis on heroic orientations. This is why television commentators for US football games continually talk about danger, injuries, playing with pain, and courage. Some athletes, however, realize the dangers associated with heroic orientations and try to slow the move away from aesthetic orientations in their sports. For example, some former figure skaters have called for restrictions on the number of triple jumps that can be included in skating programs. These skaters are worried that the commercial success of their sport is coming to rely on the danger of movement rather than the beauty of movement. However, some skaters seem to be willing to adopt heroic orientations if this is what will please audiences and generate revenues. These athletes usually evaluate themselves and other athletes in terms of the sport ethic, and they learn to see heroic actions signs of true commitment and dedication to their sport.
Commercialization also leads to changes in the organizations that control sports. When sports begin to depend on generating revenues, the control of sport organizations usually shifts further and further away from the players. In fact, the players often lose effective control over the conditions of their own participation in the sport. These conditions come under the control of general managers,team owners,corporate sponsors, advertisers, media personnel, marketing and publicity staff, professional management staff, accountants, and agents.
9..The organizations that control commercial sports are usually complex, since they are intended to coordinate the interests of all these people, but their primary goal is to maximize revenues.This means that organizational decisions generally reflect the combined economic interests of many people having no direct personal connection with a sport or with the athletes involved. The power to affect these decisions is grounded in a variety of resources, many of which are not even connected with sports. Therefore athletes in many commercial sports find themselves cut out of decision-making processes even when decisions affect their health and well-being.
Unit3  Oslo
1.I remember on my first trip to Europe going alone to a movie in Copenhagen. In Denmark you are given a ticket for an assigned seat. I went into the cinema and discovered that my ticket directed me to sit beside the only other people in the place,a young couple locked in the sort of passionate embrace associated with dockside reunions at the end of long wars. I could no more have sat beside them than I could have asked to join in-it would have come to much the same thing- so I took a place a few discreet seats away.
2. People came into the cinema, consulted their tickets and filled the seats around us. By the time the film started there were about 30 of us sitting together in a tight pack in the middle of a vast and otherwise empty auditorium. Two minutes into the movie, a woman laden with shopping made her way with difficulty down my row, stopped beside my seat and told me in a stern voice, full of glottal stops and indignation, that I was in her place. This caused much play of flashlights among the usherettes and fretful re-examining of tickets by everyone in the vicinity until word got around that I was an American tourist and therefore unable to follow simple seating instructions and. I was escorted in some shame back to my assigned place.
2人们陆续地走进影院,参照电影票找到位子,在我们周围坐了下来。电影开场时,这个宽敞空旷的观众席中间,扎堆地坐了约30人。电影开场两分钟后,一个拎着大包 小包购物袋的女士艰难地挤到我这排,在我座位旁停下,并用严厉的口吻愤怒地朝我用充满了喉塞音的丹麦语说道,我坐在了她的位子上。女引座员马上打开手电筒查看情况,身边所有的人都不安地重新确认自己票上的座位号,直到大家都清楚了,我是一个美国游客,因此没有遵循简单的就座指示。在羞愧中我被送回指定的位子。
3.So we sat together and watched the movie, 30 of us crowded together like refugees in an overloaded lifeboat, rubbing shoulders and sharing small noises, and it occurred to me then that there are certain things that some nations do better than everyone else and certain things that they do far worse and I began to wonder why that should be.
3接下来我们坐在一起看电影,30人如同一艘超载的救生船上的难民一般挤作一团。肩膀相互摩擦着,忍受着各种细小的噪声。那时我想,有些国家在某些事情上做的比任 何其他国家都好,然而在另外一些事情上,他们却糟糕很多。我开始思考为何会有如此反差。4.Sometimes a nation's little contrivances are so singular and clever that we associate them with that country alone-double-decker buses in Britain, windmills in Holland (what an inspired addition- to a flat landscape: think how they would transform Nebraska),sidewalk cafes in Paris. And yet there are some things that most countries do without difficulty that others cannot get a grasp of at all.
4有时候某个国家的小发明是如此独特和精巧,以至于我们总是由它而联想到这个国家——英国的双层巴士,荷兰的风车(给原本单调的景观增添了多么美妙的创意:想想这些风车是如何改变了内布拉斯加州),还有巴黎人行道上的露天咖啡馆。然而, 也有一些事情,大部分国家能不费吹灰之力地办到,但某些国家却完全想不到。
5.The French, for instance, cannot get the hang of queuing. They try and try, but it is beyond them. Wherever you go in Paris,you see orderly lines waiting at bus stops, but as soon as the bus pulls up the line instantly disintegrates into something like a fire drill at a lunatic asylum as everyone scrambles to be the first aboard, quite unaware that this defeats the whole purpose of queuing.
6.The British, on the other hand, do not understand certain of the fundamentals of eating, as evidenced by their instinct to consume hamburgers with a knife and fork. To my continuing amazement, many of them also turn their fork upside一down and balance the food on the back of it. I’ve lived in England for a decade and a half and 1 still have to quell an impulse to go up to strangers in pubs and restaurants and say, "Excuse me. Can I give you a tip that'll help stop those peas bouncing all over the table?"
6另一方面,英国人则不能领略吃的基本要领。证据就是他们本能地使用刀叉来食用汉堡。更令我惊讶的是,他们大多数都把叉子颠倒放置,将食物搁在它的背上。我已经 在英国居住了 15年,但我仍不得不压制这种冲动,想要走向酒吧或餐馆里的陌生人说:“打扰一下,可以允许我告诉你一个小技巧吗?(此文来自袁勇兵博客)那样你就不会把豆子散落在整张桌子上了。
7.Germans are flummoxed by humor, the Swiss have no concept of fun, the Spanish think there is nothing at all ridiculous about eating dinner at midnight, and the Italians should never, ever have been let in on the invention of the motor car.
8.One of the small marvels of my first trip to Europe was the discovery that the world could be so full of variety, that there were so many different ways of doing essentially identical things, like eating and drinking and buying cinema tickets. It fascinated me that Europeans could at once be so alike-that they could be so universally bookish and cerebral, and drive small cars, and live in little houses in ancient towns, and love soccer, and be relatively unmaterialistic and law-abiding, and have chilly hotel rooms and cosy and inviting places to eat and drink-and yet be so endlessly, unpredictably different from each other as well. I loved the idea that you could never be sure of anything in Europe.
9.I still enjoy that sense of never knowing quite what's going on.In my hotel in Oslo where I spent four days after returning from Hammerfest, the chambermaid each morning left me a packet of something called Bio Tex Bla, a "minipakke for ferie,hybel og weekend" according to the instructions. I spent many happy hours sniffing it and experimenting with it, uncertain whether it was for washing out clothes or gargling or cleaning the toilet bowl. In the end I decided it was for washing out clothes- it worked a treat-but for all I know for the rest of the week everywhere I went in Oslo people were saying to each other, "You know, that man smelled like toilet-bowl cleaner."
9我仍然享受着对事情进展的未知感。从哈默菲斯特返回后,我在奥斯陆的宾馆呆了四天,女服务员每天早上都留给我一盒叫做Bio Tex Bla的东西,说明上说是一种 “minipakke for ferie,hybel og weekend”。我不清楚它到底是用来洗衣服的,还是漱口的, 或是用来淸洗抽水马桶的,我通过闻它的气味,并试验它各种可能的用法,度过了好几个快乐的小时。最后我判定它是甩来洗衣服的——它的确有效——然而就我所知,在奥斯陆度过的剩下几周中,无论我去哪儿,都听见有人互相议论:“你知道吗?那个人身上有马桶清洁剂的味道。”
10.When I told my friends in London that I was going to travel around Europe and write a book about it, they said, "Oh, you must speak a lot of languages."
11."Why, no," I would reply with a certain pride, "only English," and they would look at me as if I were crazy. But that's the glory of foreign travel, as far as I am concerned. I don't want to know what people are talking about. I can't think of anything that excites a greater sense of childlike wonder than to be in a country where you are ignorant of almost everything. Suddenly you are five years old again. You can't read anything, you have only the most rudimentary sense of how things work, you can't even reliably cross a street without endangering your life. Your whole existence becomes a series of interesting guesses.
11 “为什么,我不会,”我会带着一点傲气回答,“我只会英语。”然后他们就看着我,好像我疯了。(此文来自袁勇兵博客)但是就我而言,那正是国外旅游的美妙之处。我并不想知道人们在说些什 么。置身于一个对你而言完全陌生的国家,能激发一种孩子般的好奇心。除此之外,我想不出还有什么更好的办法。突然之间你又回到了五岁。你无法读懂任何东西,你对事物运行方式只有最基本的感知,你甚至无法安全地穿过马路。你的整个存在变成了一系列有趣的猜想。
12.I get great pleasure from watching foreign TV and trying to imagine what on earth is gonging on.On my first evening in Oslo,I watched a science program in which two men in a studio stood at a lab table discussing a variety of sleek, rodent-like animals that were crawling over the surface and occasionally up the host's jacket. "And you have sex with all these creatures, do you?"the host was saying.
12 看国外电视节目,试着想象到底发生了什么事,这让我乐此不疲。比如说,在奥斯陆 的第一个晚上,我收看一个科学节目,演播室里的两个男子站在一张实验桌旁,讨论着一种有着光滑皮毛的貌似啮齿目的动物,它们在桌面上爬行,偶尔爬上主持人的外套。主持人正在说:“那么你与所有这些动物做爱,是吗?
13."Certainly," replied the guest. "You have to be careful with the porcupines, of course and the lemmings can get very neurotic and hurl themselves off cliffs if they feel you don't love them as you once did,but basically these animals make very affectionate companions, and the sex is simply out of this world."
13 “当然,”嘉宾回答道,“你必须对豪猪十分小心,当然,旅鼠若是感觉你不再像以前 那样爱它们,会变得焦躁不安并跳下悬崖,但总的来说,这些动物是非常亲切的伴侣, 并且性也是十分美妙的。
14."Well, I think that's wonderful. Next week we'll be looking at how you can make hallucinogenic drugs with simple household chemicals from your own medicine cabinet, but now it's time for the screen to go blank for a minute and then for the blights to come up suddenly on the host of the day looking  as if he was just about to pick his nose. See you next week."
14 “哎呀,我觉得那很棒。下周让大家见识一下你是怎么用药柜中的简单家庭用药制造出致幻药的。(此文来自袁勇兵博客)该让荧幕空白几分光突然亮起,然后让灯光突然亮起,照在主持人身;让他看起来似乎就像正要抠鼻子。下周见。”
15.After Hammerfest, Oslo was simly wonderful. It was still cold and dusted with greyish snow, but it seemed positively tropical Hammerfest, and I abandoned all thought of buying a furry hat. I went to the museums and for a day-long way out around the Bygdoy' peninsula, where the city's finest houses stand on the wooded hillsides, with fetching views across the icy water of the harbour to the downtown. But mostly I hung around the city center, wandering back and forth between the railway station and the royal palace, peering in the store windows along Karl Johans Gate2, the long and handsome main pedestrian street, cheered by the bright lights, mingling with the happy, healthy, relentlessly youthful Norwegians, very pleased to be alive and out of Hanunerfest and in a world of daylight. When I grew cold, I sat in caf e s and bars and eavesdropped on conversations that I could not understand or brought out my Thomas Cook European Timetable and studied it with a kind of humble reverence,planning the rest of my trip.
15 去过哈默菲斯特后,就货得奥斯陆简直妙不可言。天气依然很冷,到处还撒着灰蒙蒙 的雪花,但是比起哈默菲斯特来那可要暖和多了,这也让我彻底放弃了想要买毛皮帽的想法。我参观了博物馆,并花了一天时间游览巴度半岛,那里丛林茂密的山坡上矗立着该城市最美的房子,其视野可跨越海港冰面一直延伸到市区,十分迷人。但是大多数时间我就在市中心闲逛,在火车站和皇宫之间来回溜达,在卡尔约翰街向街旁的商店橱窗里张望。在路边明亮的灯光的照耀下,长长的卡尔约翰步行街富丽堂皇, 与健康快乐、不屈不挠又充满朝气的挪威人融合在一起。我很高兴能离开哈莫斯菲特并来到这个充满活力、犹如白昼的世界。当我觉得寒意逼人时,我便进入咖啡馆或酒吧坐下,偷听那些我无法明白的对话,抑或拿出我的《托马斯库克欧洲时刻表》,满怀敬意地加以研究,做接下来的旅行安排。
Thomas Cook European Timetable is possibly the finest book ever produced. It is impossible to leaf through its 500 pages of densely printed timetables without wanting to dump a double armload of clothes into an old Gladstone4 and just take off. Every page whispers romance: "Montreux-Zweisimmen-Spiez-Interlaken","Beograd-Trieste-Venezia-Verona-Milano","Goteborg-Lax'-(Hallsberg)-Stockholm", "Ventimiglia-Marseille-Lyon-Paris"5.Who could recite these names without experiencing a tug of excitement, without seeing in his mind's eye a steamy platform full of expectant travelers and piles of luggage standing beside a sleek, quarter-mile- long train with;a list of exotic locations slotted into every carriage? Who could read the names "Moskva-Warszawa-Berlin-Basel-Geneve" and not feel a melancholy envy for all those lucky people who get to make a grand journey across一storied continent?Who could glance at such an itinerary and not want to climb aboard? Well, Sunny von Biilow for a start. But as for me, I could spend hours just poring over the tables, each one a magical thicket of times, numbers, distances, mysterious little pictograms showing crossed knives and forks, wine glasses, daggers, miner's pickaxes (whatever could they be for?), ferry boats and buses, and bewilderingly abstruse footnotes.
16《托马斯库克欧洲时刻表》可能是已出版的最优秀的书籍。当你迅速翻阅了其500页 密密印刷的时间表后,你必然有冲动想要往旅行包内塞进两抱衣服,然后立刻出发。 每一页都低声诉说着浪漫:蒙特勒—兹怀斯门—施皮茨—因特拉肯,贝尔格莱 德—的里雅斯特——威尼斯—维罗纳—米兰,哥德堡—拉赫斯河—(哈尔 斯贝里)—斯德哥尔摩,文堤米利亚—马赛—里昂—巴黎。无论是谁吟诵这 些地名,都会感受到一股强烈的兴奋,想象着雾气蒙蒙的月台,以及在400多 米长的流线型车厢旁,站满了期待的旅客,堆满了行李,每个车厢里都放着一张写着外国地名的列表。当读到莫斯科—华沙—柏林—巴塞尔—日内瓦这一系列地名时,又有谁不会伤感地羡慕那些能够横跨这个历史悠久的大陆的幸运儿呢?看过这樣的旅行安排,谁不想踏上行程呢?(此文来自袁勇兵博客)那么,桑尼.冯.比洛就是这样一个例子。但是对我来说,我可以花大量时间就这样凝视着这些列表,每一份都不可思议地包含了时刻、数量、距离、画着交叉刀叉、酒杯、匕首、矿工镐(不管做何用途)、渡轮和巴士的神奇小图,以及令人困惑的深奥脚注。
Unit4  Is Google Making Us Stupid
1.Over the past few years I've had an uncomfortable sense that someone, or something,has been tinkering with my brain, remapping the neural circuitry, reprograming the memory. My mind isn't going一  so far as I can tell一  but it's changing. I'm not thinking the way I used to think. I can feel it most strongly when I’m reading. Immersing myself in a book or a lengthy article used to be easy. My mind would get caught up in the narrative or the turns of the argument, and I’d spend hours strolling through long stretches of prose. That's rarely the case anymore. Now my concentration often starts to drift after two or three pages. I get fidgety, lose the thread, begin looking for something else to do. I feel as if I'm always dragging my wayward brain back to the text. The deep reading that used to come naturally has become a struggle.
2.I think I know what's going on. For more than a decade now, I've been spending a lot of time online, searching and surfing and sometimes adding to the great databases of the Internet. The Web has been a godsend to me as a writer. Research that once required days in the stacks or periodical rooms of libraries can now be done in minutes. A few Google searches, some quick clicks on hyperlinks, and I've got the telltale fact or pithy quote I was after. Even when I'm not working, I'm as likely as not to be foraging in the Web's info-thickets2-reading and writing emails, scanning headlines and blog posts, watching videos and listening to podcasts, or just tripping from link to link to link. (Unlike footnotes, to which they're sometimes likened, hyperlinks don't merely point to related works; they propel you toward them.)
3.For me, as for others , the Net is becoming a universa一medium, the conduit for most of the information that flows through my eyes and ears and into my mind. The advantages of having immediate access to such an incredibly rich store of information are many, and they've been widely described and duly applauded. "The perfect recall of silicon memory," Wired's0 Clive Thompson has written, "can be an enormous boon to thinking." But that boon comes at a price. As the media theorist Marshall McLuhan pointed out in the 1960s, media are not just passive channels of information. They supply the stuff of thought, but they also shape the process of thought. And what the Net seems to be doing is chipping away at my capacity for concentration and contemplation. My mind now expects to take in information the way the Net distributes it: in a swiftly moving stream of particles.Once I was a scuba diver in the sea of words. Now I zip along the surface like a guy on a Jet Ski.
4.I’m not the only one.When I mention my troubles with reading to friends and acquaintances-literary types, most of them-many say they're having similar experiences. The more they use the Web, the more they have to fight to stay focused on long pieces of writing. Some of the bloggers I follow have also begun mentioning the phenomenon. Scott Karp, who writes a blog about online media, recently confessed that he has stopped reading books altogether. "I was a lit major in college, and used to be a voracious book reader," he wrote. "What happened?" He speculates on the answer: "What if I do all my reading on the web not so much because the way I read has changed, i.e. I'm just seeking convenience, but because the way I think has changed?"
4我并不是唯一一个有此感觉的人。当我向文学界的朋友和熟人提到我在阅读方面的困扰,许多人说他们也有同样的感受。他们上网越多,在阅读长文章时,就越难集中精力。我所关注的一些博主也提到了类似的现象。斯科特?卡普开了一个有关在线媒体的博客,最近他承认自己已经完全不读书了。 “我大学读的是文学专业,曾经是一个嗜书如命的人,”他写道。“到底发生了什么事呢?”他推测出了一个答案:“如果对我来说,通过网络来阅读的真正理由与其说是我的阅读方式发生了改变,比如,我只是图个方便,不如说是我的思维方式在发生变化,那么我该怎么办呢?”
5.Bruce Friedman, who blogs regularly about the use of computers in medicine, also has described how the Internet has altered his mental habits. "I now have almost totally lost the ability to read and absorb a longish article on the web or in print," he wrote earlier this year. A pathologist who has long been on the faculty of the University of Michigan Medical School, Friedman elaborated on his comment in a telephone conversation with me. His thinking, he said, has taken on a "staccato" quality, reflecting the way he quickly scans short passages of text from many sources online. "I can't read War and Peace anymore,"he admitted "I've lost the ability to do that. Even a blog post of more than three or four paragraph is too much to absorb. I skim it."
6.Anecdotes alone don't prove much. And we still await the long-term neurological and psychological experiments that will provide a definitive picture of how the Internet use affects cognition. But a recently published study of online research habits, conducted by scholars from University College London, suggests that we may well be in the midst of a sea change in the way we read and think. As part of the five-year research program, the scholars examined computer logs' documenting the behavior of visitors to two popular research sites, one operated by the British Library and one by a UK educational consortium, that provide access to journal articles, e-books, and other sources of written information. They found that people using the sites exhibited "a form of skimming activity", hopping from one source to another and rarely returning to any source they'd already visited. They typically read no more than one or two pages of an article or book before they would "bounce" out to another site. Sometimes they'd save a long article, but there's no evidence that they ever went back and actually read it.
7.Thanks to the ubiquity of text on the Internet, not to mention the popularity of text- messaging on cell phones, we may well be reading more today than we did in the 1970s or 1980s, when television was our medium of choice. But it's a different kind of reading, and behind it lies a different kind of thinking-perhaps even a new sense of the self.' "We are not only what we read," says Maryanne Wolf, a developmental psychologist at Tufts University and the author of Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain, "We are how we read." Wolf worries that the style of reading promoted by the Net, a style that puts "efficiency" and "immediacy" above all else, may be weakening our capacity for the kind of deep reading that emerged when an earlier technology, the printing press, made long and complex works of prose commonplace. When we read online, she says, we tend to become "mere decoders of information". Our ability to interpret text, to make the rich mental connections that form when we read deeply and without distraction, remains largely disengaged.
8.Reading, explains Wolf, is not an instinctive skill for human beings. It's not etched into our genes the way speech is. We have to teach our minds how to translate the symbolic characters we see into the language we understand. And the media or other technologies we use in learning and practicing the craft of reading play an important part in shaping the neural circuits inside our brains. Experiments demonstrate that readers of ideograms, such as the Chinese, develop a mental circuitry for reading that is very different from the circuitry found in those of us whose written language employs an alphabet. The variations extend across many regions of the brain, including those that govern such essential cognitive functions as memory and the interpretation of visual and auditory stimuli. We can expect as well that the circuits woven by our use of the Net will be different from those woven by our reading of books and other printed Works.
8沃尔夫认为,阅读并非人类与生俱来的技巧,它不像说话那样融人了我们的基因。我们得训练自己的大脑,让它学会如何将我们所看到的字符译解成自己可以理解的语言。而媒体或其他我们用于学习和练习阅读的技术在塑造我们大脑的神经电路中扮演着重要角色。实验表明,表意字读者(如中国人)为阅读所创建的神经电路和我们这些用字母语言的人有很大的区别。这种变化延伸到大脑的多个区域,包括那些支配诸如记忆、视觉设释和听觉刺激这样的关键认知功能的部位。我们可以预料,使用网络阅读形成的思维,一定也和通过阅读书籍及其他印刷品形成的思维不一样。9.Sometime in 1882, Friedrich Nietzsche bought a typewriter. His vision was failing, and keeping his eyes focused on a page had become exhausting and painful, often bringing on crushing headaches. He had been forced to curtail his writing, and he feared that he would soon have to give it up. The typewriter rescued him, at least for a time. Once he had mastered touch-typing, he was able to write with his eyes closed, using only the tips of his fingers. Words could once again flow from his mind to the page.
9  1882年,弗里德里希?尼采买了台打字机。此时的他,视力下降得厉害,长时间盯着一张纸会令他感觉疲惫、疼痛,还常常引起剧烈的头痛。他只得被迫缩减他的写作时间,并担心自己今后恐怕不得不放弃写作了。但打字机救了他,起码一度挽救过他。他终于熟能生巧,闭着眼睛只用手指尖也能打字—盲打。心中的词句又得以倾泻于纸页之上了。
But the machine had a subtler effect on his work. One of Nietzsche's friends, a composer, noticed a change in the style of his writing. His already terse prose had become even tighter, more telegraphic. "Perhaps you will through this instrument even ntake to a new idiom," the friend wrote in a letter, noting that, in his own work, his "`thoughts' in music and language often depend on the quality of pen and paper."
10然而,新机器也使其作品的风格发生了微妙的变化。尼采的一个作曲家朋友注意到他行文风格的改变。他那已经十分简练的行文变得更紧凑、‘更电文式了。 “或许就因为这个仪器,你甚至可能会喜欢上一个新短语,”这位朋友在一封信中提到,在他自己的作品中,他“在音乐和语言方面的‘思想’常常要依赖于笔和纸的质量”。
Unit5  An Alpine Divorce
1.John Bodman was a man who was always at one extreme or the other. This probably would have mattered little had he not married a wife whose nature was an exact duplicate of his own.
2.Doubtless there exists in this world precisely the right woman for any given man to marry and vice versa; but when you consider that one human being has the opportunity of being acquainted with only a few hundred people, and out of the few hundred that there are but a dozen or less whom one knows intimately, and out of the dozen, one or two close friends at most, it will easily be seen, when we remember the number of millions who inhabit this world, that probably, since the Earth was created, the right man has never yet met the right woman. The mathematical chances are all against such a meeting, and this is the reason that divorce courts exist. Marriage at best is but a compromise, and if two people happen to be united who are of an uncompromising nature there is bound to be trouble.
3.In the lives of these two young people there was no middle distance. The result was bound to be either love or hate, and in the case of Mr. and Mrs. Bodman it was hate of the most bitter and egotistical kind.
4.In some parts of the world, incompatibility of temper is considered a just cause for obtaining a divorce, but in England no such subtle distinction is made, and so until the wife became criminal, or the man became both criminal and cruel, these two were linked together by a bond that only death could sever.' Nothing can be worse than this state of things, and the matter was only made the more hopeless by the fact that Mrs. Bodman lived a blameless life, while her husband was no worse than the majority of men. Perhaps, however, that statement held only up to a certain point, for John Bodman had reached a state of mind in which he resolved to get rid of his wife at all hazards. If he had been a poor man he would probably have deserted her, but he was rich, and a man cannot freely leave a prospering business because his domestic life happens not to be happy.
5.When a man's mind dwells too much on one subject, no one can tell just how far he will go. The mind is such a delicate instrument that it is easily thrown off balance. Bodman's friends-for he had friends-claimed that his mind became unhinged. Whether John Bodman was sane or insane at the time he made up his mind to murder his wife, will never be known, but there was certainly craftiness in the method he devised to make the crime appear the result of an accident. Nevertheless, cunning is often a quality in a mind that has gone wrong.
6.Mrs. Bodman well knew how much her presence afflicted her husband, but her nature was as relentless as his, and her hatred of him was, if possible, more bitter than his hatred of her. Wherever he went she accompanied him, and perhaps the idea of murder would never have occurred to him if she had not been so persistent in forcing her presence upon him at all times and on all occasions. So, when he announced to her that he intended to spend the month of July in Switzerland, she said nothing, but made her preparations for the journey. On this occasion he did not protest, as was usual with him, and so to Switzerland this silent couple departed.
7.There was a hotel near the mountain-tops which stood on a ledge over one of the great glaciers. It was a mile and a half above sea level, and it stood alone, reached by a toilsome road that zigzagged up the mountain for six miles. There was a wonderful view of snow-peaks and glaciers fro钾the verandahs of this hotel, and in the neighborhood were many picturesque walks to points more or less dangerous.
8.John Bodman knew the hotel well, and in happier days he had been intimately acquainted with the vicinity. Now that the thought of murder arose in his mind, a certain spot two miles distant from this inn continually haunted him. It was a point of view overlooking everything, and its extremity was protected by a low and crumbling wall. He arose one morning at four o'clock, slipped unnoticed out of the hotel, and went to this point, which was locally named the Hanging Outlook. His memory had served him well. It is exactly the spot, he said to himself. The mountain which rose up behind it was wild and precipitous. There were no inhabitants nearby to overlook the place. The distant hotel was hidden by a shoulder of rock.
9.One glance over the crumbling wall at the edge was generally sufficient for a visitor of even the strongest nerves. There was a sheer drop" of more than a mile straight down, and at the distant bottom were jagged rocks and stunted trees that looked, in the blue haze, like shrubbery.
"This is the spot," said the man to himself, "and tomorrow morning is the time."
11.John Bodman had planned his crime as grimly and relentlessly, and as coolly, as he had ever concocted a deal on the stock exchange. There was no thought in his mind of mercy for his unaware victim. His hatred had carried him far.
12.The next morning after breakfast, he said to his wife: "I intend to take a walk in the mountains. Do you wish to come with me?"
13.`Yes," she answered briefly.
"Very well, then," he said, "I shall be ready at nine o'clock."
15.At that hour they left the hotel together, to which he planned to return alone shortly. They spoke no word to each other on their way to the Hanging Outlook. The path was practically level, skirting the mountains, for the Hanging Outlook was not much higher above the sea than the hotel.
16.John Bodman had formed no fixed plan for his procedure when the place was reached. He resolved to be guided by circumstances. Now and then a strange fear arose in his mind that she might cling to him and possibly drag him over the precipice with her. He found himself wondering whether she had any premonition of her fate, and one of his reasons for not speaking was the fear that a tremor in his voice might possibly arouse her suspicions. He resolved that his action should be sharp and sudden, that she might have no chance either to help herself or to drag him with her. Of her screams in that desolate region he had no fear. No one could reach the spot except from the hoteL and no one that morning had left the premises.
17.Curiously enough. when they came within sight of the Hanging Outlook, Mrs. Bodman stopped and shuddered. Bodman looked at her through the narrow slits of his veiled eyes, and wondered again if she had any suspicion. No one can tell, when two people walk closely together, what unconscious communication one mind may have with Another.
"What is the matter?" he asked gruffly. "Are you tired?"
19."John," she cried, with a gasp in her voice, calling him by his Christian name for the first time in years, "don't you think that if you had been kinder to me at first, things might have been different?"
20."It seems to me," he answered, not looking at her, "that it is rather late in the day for discussing that question."
“I have much to regret," she said quaveringly. "Have you nothing?"
`No," he answered.                 22“没有,”他答道。
23."Very well," replied his wife, with the usual hardness returning to her voice, "I was merely giving you a chance."
Her husband looked at her suspiciously.
25."What do you mean?" he asked. "Giving me a chance? I want no chance nor anyhing else from you. A man accepts nothing from one he hates. My feelings towards you are, I imagine, no secret to you. We are tied together, and you have done your best to make the bondage insupportable."
26."Yes," she answered, with her eyes on the ground,"we are tied together-we are tied together!"
27.She repeated these words under her breath as they walked the few remaining steps to the Outlook. Bodman sat down upon the crumbling wall. The woman dropped her alpenstock on the rock, and walked nervously to and fro, clasping and unclasping her hands. Her husband caught his breath as the terrible moment drew near.
28.."Why do you walk about like a wild animal?" he cried. "Come here and sit down beside me, and be still."
29.She faced him with a light he had never before seen in her eyes-a light of insanity and of hatred.
30."I walk like a wild animal," she said, "because I am one. You spoke a moment ago of your hatred of me, but you are a man, and your hatred is nothing to mine. Bad as you are, much as you wish to break the bond which ties us together, there are still things which I know you would not stoop to. There is no thought of murder in heart, but there is in mine."
31.The man nervously clutched the stone beside him, and gave a guilty start as she mentioned murder.
32."Yes," she continued, "I have told all my friends in England that I believed you intended to murder me in Switzerland."
"Good Lord!" he cried. "How could you say such a thing?"
34."I say it to show how much I hate you-how much I am prepared to give up for revenge. I have warned the people at the hotel, and when we left two men followed us. The proprietor tried to persuade me not to accompany you. In a few moments those two men will come in sight of the Outlook. Tell them, if you think they will believe you, that it was an accident."
35.The mad woman tore from the front of her dress shreds of lace and scattered them around. Bodman started up to his feet, crying, "What are you about?" But before he could move toward her she threw herself over the wall, and went shrieking and whirling down the awful abyss.
36.The next moment two men came hurriedly round the edge of the rock, and found the man standing alone. Even in his bewilderment, he realized that if he told the truth he would not be believed.
Unit6 Inaugural Address
Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, reverend clergy, fellow citizens, we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom—symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning—signifying renewal, as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three quarters ago.   
The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe—the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God. 
We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans—born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage—and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world.
Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty. 
This much we pledge—and more. 
To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do—for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at odds and split asunder. 
To those new States whom we welcome to the ranks of the free, we pledge our word that one form of colonial control shall not have passed away merely to be replaced by a far more iron tyranny. We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom—and to remember that, in the past, those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside. 
To those peoples in the huts and villages across the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves, for whatever period is required—not because the Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. If a free society cannot help the many who are poor, it cannot save the few who are rich. 
To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge—to convert our good words into good deeds—in a new alliance for progress—to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of its own house. 
To that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations, our last best hope in an age where the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace, we renew our pledge of support—to prevent it from becoming merely a forum for invective—to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak—and to enlarge the area in which its writ may run. 
Finally, to those nations who would make themselves our adversary, we offer not a pledge but a request: that both sides begin anew the quest for peace, before the dark powers of destruction unleashed by science engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.最后,对那些与我们作对的国家,我们提出一个要求而不是一项保证:在科学释放出可怕的破坏力量,把全人类卷人预谋的或意外的自我毁灭的深渊之前,让我们双方重新开始寻求和平。
We dare not tempt them with weakness. For only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed. 
But neither can two great and powerful groups of nations take comfort from our present course—both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both rightly alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind's final war. 
So let us begin anew—remembering on both sides that civility is not a sign of weakness, and sincerity is always subject to proof. Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate. 
Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us. 
Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms—and bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations. 
Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science instead of its terrors. Together let us explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths, and encourage the arts and commerce. 
Let both sides unite to heed in all corners of the earth the command of Isaiah—to "undo the heavy burdens ... and to let the oppressed go free." 
And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion, let both sides join in creating a new endeavor, not a new balance of power, but a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved. 
All this will not be finished in the first 100 days. Nor will it be finished in the first 1,000 days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.
In your hands, my fellow citizens, more than in mine, will rest the final success or failure of our course. Since this country was founded, each generation of Americans has been summoned to give testimony to its national loyalty. The graves of young Americans who answered the call to service surround the globe. 
Now the trumpet summons us again—not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are—but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation"—a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself. 
Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?为反对这些敌人,确保人类更为丰裕的生活,我们能够组成一个包括东西南北各方的全球大联盟吗?你们愿意参加这一历史性的努力吗?
In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility—I welcome it. I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it—and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. 
And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country. 
My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. 
Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you. With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must truly be our own.
Unit7 the poetry of architecture
1 The science of Architecture, followed out to its full extent, is one of the noblest of those which have reference only to the creations of human minds. It is not merely a science of the rule and compass, it does not consist only in the observation of just rule or of fair proportion; it is , or ought to be, a science of feeling more than of rule, a majesty of a building depend upon its pleasing certain prejudices of the eye, than upon its rousing certain trains of meditation in the mind, it will show in a moment how many intricate question of feeling are involved in the raising of an edifice; it will convince us of the truth of proposition, which might at first have appeared startling, that no man can be an architect who is not a metaphysician.
2  To the illustration of the department of this noble science which may be designated The Poetry of Architecture, this and some future articles will be dedicated. It is this peculiarity of the art which constitutes its nationality;And it will be found as interesting as it is useful, to trace in the distinctive characters of the architecture of nations, not only its adaptation to the situation and climate in which it has arisen, but its strong similarity to, and connection with, the prevailing turn of mind by which the nation who first employed it is distinguished.
3 I consider the task I have imposed upon myself the more necessary, because this department of the science, perhaps regarded by some who have no ideas beyond stone and mortar as chimerical, and by others who think nothing necessary but truth and proportion as useless, is at a miserably low ebb in England.And what is the consequence?We have Corinthian columns placed beside pilasters of no order at all, surmounted by monstrosified pepper-boxes, Gothic in form and Grecian in detail, in a building nominally and peculiarly “National”; we have Swiss cottages, falsely and calumniously so entitled, dropped in the brick-fields round the metropolis; and we have staring square-windowed, flat-roofed gentlemen’s seat, of the lath and plaster, mock-magnificent, Regent’t park description, rising on the woody promontories of Derwent Water.
4 How deeply is it to be regretted, how much is it to be wondered at, that, in a country whose school of painting, though degraded by its system of meretricious coloring, and disgraced by hosts of would-be imitators of inimitable individuals, is yet raised by the distinguished talent of those individuals to a place of well-deserved honor, and the studios of whose sculptors are filled with designs of the most pure simplicity, and most perfect animation;
the school of architecture should be so miserably debased!
5 There are, however, many reasons for a fact so lamentable.In the first place, the patrons of architecture (I am speaking of all classes of buildings, from the lowest to the highest) are a more numerous and less capable class than those of painting…There, the power is generally diffused.Every citizen may box himself up in as barbarous a tenement as suits his taste or inclination;The architect is his vassal, and must permit him not only to criticize, but to perpetrate.The palace or the nobleman’s seat may be raised in good taste, and become the admiration of a nation; but the influence of their owner is terminated by the boundary of his estate: he has no command over the adjacent scenery,And the possessor of every 30 acres around him has him at his mercy.The streets of our cities are examples of the effects of this clashing of different tastes; and they are either remarkable for the utter absence of all attempt at embellishment, or disgraced by every variety of abomination…
6 I shall attempt, therefore, to endeavor to illustrate the principle from the neglect of which these abuses have arisen; That of unity of feeling, the basis of all grace, the essence of all beauty. We shall consider the architecture of nations as it is influenced by their feelings and manners, as it is connected with the scenery in which it is found, and with the skies under which it was erected;We shall be led as much to the street and the cottage as to the temple and the tower;And shall be more interested in buildings raised by feeling, than in those corrected by rule.We shall commence with the lower class of edifices, proceeding from the roadside to the village, and from the village to the city; and, if we succeed in directing the attention of a single individual more directly to this most interesting department of the science of architecture, we shall not have written in vain.
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