我国第三方物流企业的运作模式探讨(中英文对照)
参考来源:网络 作者:秩名 更新时间:2016年04月24日 19时58分
  第三方物流是社会分工和商品经济发展的产物,并随着社会分工的深化和商品经济的发展而逐步发展。,随着科学技术革命和社会分工的发展,第三方物流逐步成为现代物流的主导形式。我国第三方物流的引入是近几年的事情。由于第三方物流这种以合同制提供系统全套物流的方式,可以使企业为把精力集中在核心竞争力上,成为企业"第三利润"的来源,因此,越来越多的企业选择将部分或全部物流业务外包给第三方物流。同时,物流需求的增长促进了第三方物流企业的扩张式发展。
    我国第三方物流企业一般从传统的与物流相关的企业发展而来,物流还处于传统物流服务向现代物流转换过程的初级阶段,许多物流企业缺乏对第三方物流的正确认识,对国外成熟物流市场上第三方物流企业的发展规律也没有深入分析,在运作模式的科学性上尚有很大欠缺,所以,在现阶段,研究我国传统物流企业转向第三方物流企业的运作模式具有非常强的现实意义。
  1、我国传统物流转化为第三方物流的障碍
  传统物流转化为符合现代物流要求的第三方物流存在着以下障碍:一是观念障碍。对物流理论、增值服务不甚了解或了解甚少,满足于提供分割的功能服务;二是物流信息服务障碍。在传统物流企业中使用信息管理系统的为数不多,许多企业内部的信息处理还是手工操作,无法提供物流信息增值服务;三是专业化的人员和设备障碍。具有专门物流知识、经营管理及营销管理的人才严重缺乏,物流设施不符合服务要求。四是服务模式落后。因此,传统物流向第三方物流转变必须克服这些障碍,采取适合我国国情的第三方物流运作模式。
  2、不当的第三方物流运作模式的负面影响
  第三方物流运作模式不当会带来很多负面影响:首先,有些物流企业在定位运作模式时,倾向于夸大服务能力,导致业务无法做精做细,不能形成核心竞争力,最终由于服务水平低下,难以留住客户;第二,各物流企业的不同特点决定了它们有各自适合的服务对象和服务内容,宏观上,各物流企业间应当是既有分工协作又有相互竞争,共同形成理性、健康的物流服务市场。如果物流企业的服务对象和内容没有明确定位,就会造成同一市场上的物流企业运作模式雷同、盲目竞争的局面。
  3、第三方物流企业运作模式分类的界定依据
  由于第三方物流企业是专业的物流服务提供商,因此一些学者曾经从服务的角度对第三方物流企业进行过分类,分类的依据都是二维的。本文认为,对于物流服务提供者来说,如何提供服务固然是其战略重点,但如何整合资源更是应该首要考虑的问题。资源整合和物流服务的模式共同决定了物流企业的运作模式,也是其区别于竞争对手的关键所在。经过细分,本文从资源整合、服务内容、服务范围三个方面来界定第三方物流企业的运作模式。
  3.1资源整合
    从资源整合的方式看,第三方物流企业主要有两种。一种是不拥有固定资产,依靠组织协调外部资源进行运作的"非资产型"第三方物流企业。由于不需要大量的资金投入,运行风险较小。这种运作模式能够较好运行的前提条件是要求底层的物流市场很成熟,社会资源容易获取而且选择余地较大。 另一种是投资购买各种装备并建立自己物流网点的"资产型"第三方物流企业。这种运作模式虽然需要较大的投入,但拥有自己的网络、装备有利于更好地控制物流服务过程,其柔性化能力和整体服务质量也有保证,雄厚的资产还能展示一个公司的实力,有利于同客户建立信任关系,对品牌推广和市场拓展有重要意义。 采用哪种方式没有绝对的标准,主要取决于企业的背景、投入能力、战略规划以及宏观环境。
  3.2服务内容
    在服务内容上,第三方物流企业可以提供四个层次的物流服务:集成度较低的功能型物流服务和增值型物流服务,以及集成度较高的综合集成服务和系统咨询设计服务。 集成度最低的是功能型物流服务,这类企业提供诸如货代、运输、仓储,配送中的某一项或几项服务。他们的竞争力在于充分有效利用自有资源的基础上提高功能物流服务的经营效率,达到比自营物流更高效、更低成本的运作,传统的运输、仓储企业实际上就是提供这种服务的。增值型物流服务是在保证能够提供高水平的功能型物流服务的基础上,附加一些增值服务,替客户分担更多的非核心业务。增值服务没有固定的组成要素,不同的行业所需的增值服务也不尽相同。 提供综合集成服务的物流企业能够把供应链上的一段(如分销物流)或者整个供应链的物流活动高度集成、有效衔接,进行运作、管理和优化,他们为客户提供一种长期的、专业的、高效的物流服务。提供系统咨询与设计的物流企业不仅具备运营和管理整个供应链的能力,而目能够利用专业、科学的物流知识为客户量身进行物流体系的规划、设计、整合和改进,全面提升运作效率与效益,提高客户服务水平和快速反应能力,更好支持和服务于客户的可持续发展战略。
  3.3服务范围
    服务范围主要是指第三方物流企业所服务的行业范围。有些企业服务范围相对较窄、较集中,仅为单一或者少数行业提供服务,另外一些企业服务范围很广,可以为多个行业提供服务。在成熟的物流市场上,第三方物流企业为了建立自已的竞争优势,一般将主营业务定位在特定的一个或几个行业,因为不同的行业其物流运作模式是不同的,专注于特定行业可以形成行业优势,增强自身的竞争能力。
  4、我国第三方物流企业可行的几种主要运作模式
  4.1整合现有物流资源,建立"非资产型"的第三方物流企业模式
  一方面,从我国目前的第三方物流企业的状况看,由于部分投资者缺乏足够的资金用于全新的基于资产的第三方物流企业的构建,迫使他们必须采用"非资产型"的第三方物流形式;另一方面,我国传统的运输部门、企业和商储公司作为物流行业的主力占据着我国物流的主要社会资源,他们有优越的仓库、站场设施,有自己的运输搬运设施、铁路专用线和自己的客户网,但从全国范围来看,这些物流资源利用率不高,浪费严重。因此从实际情况入手,整合现有物流资源,建立"非资产型"的第三方物流企业,一方面可以充分利用社会既有物流资源优势实现资源共享,另一方面避免了组织机构的臃肿庞大。
  4.2以提高物流环节的服务附加值为目标的基础物流服务模式
  目前我国企业对第三方物流服务的需求层次还比较低,主要仍集中在对基本常规项目的需求上。生产企业外包的服务第一是干线运输,第二是市内配送,第三是储存保管。商业企业需求的服务第一是市内配送,第二是储存保管,其次是干线运输。这表明生产企业和商业企业对物流服务内容的侧重点有所不同。企业对增值性高、综合的物流服务如库存管理、物流系统设计、物流总代理等的需求还很少。因此,我国的物流企业在推进第三方物流服务时,要充分考虑到企业的现实需求,从基本的服务功能入手,从简单的服务开始,在不断巩固自身提供常规服务的能力的前提下扩展延伸服务。一开始就定位在高级形态的第三方物流运作上并不现实。不应一味追求时髦的理念与模式,舍本逐末,放弃对常规服务质量的重视。第三方物流供应商应该从区域客户的需求出发,根据企业的实际情况,首先从提供基础物流服务开始,展示他们有能力把这些服务做得最好,随后才开始提供高附加值的服务。从而逐步实现物流环节的系统化和标准化,为客户提供全方位的物流服务。
  4.3电子商务与第三方物流的有机整合模式
  电子商务作为21世纪主要商业运作模式,为第三方物流提供了广阔的发展空间,同时,第三方物流的发展又为电子商务的实现提供了现实保障,与电子商务整合,将成为第三方物流主要运作模式之一。从实际运作状况来看,第三方物流与电子商务的整合主要有以下两种方式:其一是第三方物流作为电子商务组成要素,承担物流作业,完成B2B或B2C中的物流环节;其二是第三方物流通过建设自己的电子商务,为商家与客户之间提供交换信息、进行交易、全程追踪的信息平台,从而实现电子商务与物流的紧密配合。在我国,表现较为突出的莫过于宝供物流企业集团。宝供早在1997年就开始建立基于Internet/Intranet的全国物流信息管理系统,又陆续完成了运输业务报表自动生成系统、与重点客户信息资源共享系统、运作成本、经营核算、结算信息系统,实现了"客户电子订单一体化运作"的电子商务初步目标,极大地简化了商务流程,提高了业务运作效率。可以说,在电子商务时代,实现业务电子化和网络化是第三方物流企业发展的必然选择。
  4.4综合物流代理模式
  中国目前物流企业在数量上,供给数量大于实际能力;在质量上有所欠缺,满足不了需求的质量;物流网络资源丰富,但利用和管理水平低,缺乏有效的物流管理者。国际著名的专门从事第三方物流的企业如美国的联邦速递、日本的佐川急便,国内专业化的第三方物流企业如中国储运公司、中外运公司、EMS等,这些公司都已经在不同程度地进行了综合物流代理运作模式的探索实践。发展综合物流代理业务具体是指:不进行大的固定资产投资,低成本经营,将部分或全部物流作业委托他人处理,注重自己的销售队伍与管理网络,实行特许代理,将协作单位纳入自己的经营轨道,公司经营的核心能力就是综合物流代理业务的销售、采购、协调管理和组织的设计与经营,并且注重业务流程的创新和组织机构的创新,使公司经营不断产生新的增长点。简单地说,综合物流代理企业实际上就是有效的物流管理者。采用这种模式的第三方物流企业应该具有很强的实力,陆空俱全,同时拥有发达的网络体系,这样的企业在向物流转型时能做到综合物流代理,从而为客户提供全方位的服务。
  4.5集中物流模式
  集中物流模式的特点是第三方物流企业拥有一定的资产和范围较广的物流网络,在某个领域提供集成度较低的物流服务。由于不同领域客户的物流需求千差万别,当一个物流企业能力有限时,他们就可以采取这种集中战略,力求在一个细分市场上做精做强。例如,同样是以铁路为基础的物流公司,某铁路快运公司是在全国范围内提供小件货物的快递服务,而另一物流公司则是提供大宗货物的长距离运输。由于在特定领域有自己的特色,这种第三方物流企业运作模式也是需要重点培育和发展的。
  Third-party logistics is the social division of labor and goods the product of economic development, and with the deepening social division of labor and the development of commodity economy and evolving. , With the scientific and technological revolution and the development of social division of labor, third-party logistics has gradually become the dominant form of modern logistics. The introduction of third-party logistics in China in recent years thing. This as a result of third-party logistics contract to provide a full set of logistics system approach allows enterprises to concentrate on core competitiveness, the enterprise, "the third profit" the source, therefore, more and more enterprises choose to some or all of the logistics outsourced to third-party logistics business. At the same time, the growth of the logistics needs of third-party logistics enterprises to promote the expansion of development.
Third-party logistics enterprises in China in general and logistics from the traditional development of related enterprises, logistics, logistics services is still in the tradition of the conversion process to a modern logistics in the initial stage, many third-party logistics enterprises lack of the correct understanding of the logistics, the logistics of foreign mature market on the development of third-party logistics enterprise-depth analysis of the law nor in the scientific mode of operation there is a great lack of, so at this stage to study traditional Chinese logistics enterprises will be shifted to third-party logistics business has a very strong mode of operation of the reality significance.
1.The Obstacles of traditional logistics Into Third Party Logistics in China
Traditional logistics transformation to meet the requirements of modern logistics third-party logistics there are the following obstacles:First, the concept of barriers. Theory of logistics, value-added services do not understand or know very little to satisfy the partition function of providing services;Second, barriers to logistics information services. Logistics enterprises in the traditional information management systems used in the small, many businesses within the information processing or manual operation, can not provide value-added services, logistics information;Third, specialized personnel and equipment obstacles. With specialized knowledge of logistics, management and marketing management of a serious lack of personnel, logistics facilities do not meet service requirements.Fourth, the backward mode of service. Therefore, the traditional logistics to third-party logistics changes have to overcome these obstacles, the condition of our country to take appropriate mode of operation of third-party logistics.
2.Improper mode of operation of third-party logistics negative impact
Improper mode of operation of third-party logistics will give rise to many negative effects: First, some logistics enterprises in operation in the positioning mode, tend to exaggerate the service capacity, resulting in business can not do meticulous precision, can not form the core competitiveness, and ultimately as a result of the lower level of service, it is difficult to retain customers; Secondly, the logistics of the different characteristics suitable for their own clientele and services, the macro level, the logistics of inter-firm division of labor should be both competing and collaborating together to form a rational and healthy market of logistics services. If the logistics and content of the services not explicitly targeted, the market will result in the same mode of operation of the logistics enterprises identical, blind competition.
3.the basis of classification to define the Mode of operation of third-party logistics enterprises
As the third-party logistics company is a professional logistics service providers, some scholars have been from the perspective of service to third-party logistics companies have been classified, the classification is based on two-dimensional. This article holds that, for logistics service providers is how to provide services is the focus of its strategy, but how to integrate more resources should be the primary consideration.Resources and logistics services to co-determine the mode of operation of the logistics business and a key to distinguish it from competitors. After the breakdown, this article from the resources, services, scope of services defined by three aspects of third-party logistics company mode of operation.
(1)Resource Integration
Way from the resources, the third-party logistics enterprises in two ways.One is the fixed assets does not possess and rely on external resources to organize and coordinate the operation of the "non-asset-based" third-party logistics enterprises. As a result of any large amount of capital investment, operation with less risk. This mode of operation can be better is a prerequisite for the operation of the logistics requirements of the underlying market is mature, easy access to social resources and a greater choice.The other is to invest in various types of equipment and logistics to establish its own network of "asset-based" third-party logistics enterprises.Although this mode of operation the need for greater input, but have their own networks, and equipment to better control the process of logistics services, and its flexible capacity and overall service quality be assured, strong asset a company can demonstrate the strength, is conducive to building a relationship of trust with customers, the brand promotion and market development are important.What is there is no absolute standard way depends largely on the background of enterprises, investment capacity, strategic planning as well as the macroeconomic environment.
(2)Services Content
In the service content, third-party logistics companies to provide logistics services to four levels: the lower the function of integrated logistics services and value-added logistics services, as well as higher integration services and systems integration consulting design services.Integration is a function of the lowest type of logistics services provided by such enterprises, such as freight forwarding, transportation, warehousing, distribution in one or more of service.Their competitiveness is the full and effective use of own resources based on the function of logistics services to improve operating efficiency, achieve more efficient than the self-logistics, but also low-cost operation, the traditional transportation, warehousing companies actually provide such services . Value-added logistics services to ensure a high level of functionality to provide logistics services on the basis of a number of additional value-added services for customers to share more of the non-core businesses. There is no fixed value-added services elements of the industry's need for a different value-added services are not the same.To provide integrated logistics services to the section of the supply chain (such as distribution logistics) or the whole supply chain logistics activities in a highly integrated and effective convergence, for the operation, management and optimization, they provide customers with a long-term, professional and efficient logistics services.Provide system consulting and design of logistics enterprises have not only the operation and management capacity of the whole supply chain, and the head to take advantage of professional, scientific knowledge of the logistics for clients tailored logistics system for the planning, design, integration and improved operational efficiency and enhance efficiency, enhance customer service levels and rapid response capabilities, and better customer support and service in the sustainable development strategy.
(3)Services Range
Range of services mainly refers to third-party logistics enterprises in the scope of service industries. Some relatively narrow range of business services, a higher concentration, only a single or a small number of businesses providing services, others a wide range of business services can provide services to multiple industries.Logistics in a mature market, third-party logistics companies to establish their own competitive advantage, the general will be the main business location in one or a few specific industries, because of different mode of operation of its logistics industry is different, focusing on specific industries can be advantage of the formation of the industry to strengthen its competitiveness.
4. several major viable operation mode of China's third-party logistics enterprises
(1) Integrate the existing logistics resources,  establish "non-asset-based" business model of third-party logistics.
On the one hand, from our current state of third-party logistics enterprises, the part of investors due to lack of sufficient funds for the new asset-based third-party logistics enterprises to build, forcing them to adopt "non-asset-based" third-party Logistics form; On the other hand, China's traditional transport sector, business and commercial storage logistics industry as the main occupation of the country's main social logistics resources, they have excellent storage, station facilities, have their own transportation facilities, transportation, special railway lines and their own customer base, but from across the country, these logistics resource utilization is not high, waste. So the actual situation from the start, the logistics integration of existing resources and establish a "non-asset-based" third-party logistics company, on the one hand, can take full advantage of the social advantages of the existing logistics resources to achieve resource sharing, on the other hand, avoid the huge bloated organization .
(2) In order to enhance value-added logistics services chain targeting model based on logistics services.
China's business-to third-party logistics services is still relatively low level, mainly focused on the basic needs of conventional projects. Outsourcing of production is the first main transport services, and the second is the city of delivery, the third is kept stored. The needs of commercial enterprises is the first city delivery service, and the second is stored custody, followed by the main transport. This shows that the production companies and commercial enterprises to focus on the content of logistics services is different. Enterprises with high value-added and integrated logistics services such as inventory management, logistics system design, logistics agent is also very little demand for such.. Therefore, China's logistics enterprises in promoting third-party logistics services to fully take into account the actual needs of enterprises, from the function of basic services, from simple service began, continued to consolidate its capacity to provide routine services, extended under the premise of the expansion services. The start position in the senior forms of third-party logistics operations are not realities. Should not blindly pursue the concept of fashion and models, the cart before the horse, give up on the conventional emphasis on the quality of service.Third-party logistics providers should be the needs of regional customers, according to the actual situation of enterprises, first of all provide the basis from the beginning of logistics services to demonstrate their ability to do the best of these services, and then only started to provide high value-added services. Logistics in order to gradually achieve the systematization and standardization of links to provide customers with a full range of logistics services.
(3)E-Commerce and the organic integration of third-party logistics model
E-commerce as a major commercial operation of the 21st century model for third-party logistics has provided a broad space for development at the same time, the development of third-party logistics for the realization of e-commerce security to provide a reality, and e-commerce integration, will become a major third-party logistics one mode of operation. From the actual operation conditions, third-party logistics and the integration of e-commerce mainly in the following two ways: one is composed of third-party logistics as an element of e-commerce, logistics commitment to complete the B2B or B2C segments of the logistics; second is a third-party logistics through to build their own e-commerce, for merchants and customers to provide the exchange of information, transactions, tracking of the information platform, e-commerce and logistics in order to achieve the close co-operation. In China, the performance is more prominent for logistics enterprise groups Bao. Po for as early as the beginning of 1997, based on Internet / Intranet national logistics information management system, the progressive completion of the transport system automatically generates business reports, and focus on customer information resource sharing system, operating costs, business accounting, billing information system, the realization of the "customer orders for the integration of electronic operations" of the initial target of e-commerce has greatly simplified the business processes and improve business operational efficiency. It can be said that in the era of e-commerce, e-business and third-party logistics network is an inevitable choice for enterprise development.
(4) Integrated logistics agent model
China is now the number of logistics companies, the supply is greater than the actual capacity; somewhat lacking in terms of quality, quality can not meet demand; logistics network is rich in resources, but low levels of use and management, lack of effective logistics management. Devoted to the world's leading third-party logistics companies such as the United States Federal Express, Japan's Sagawa urgent then, the domestic professional enterprises such as China's third-party logistics transportation company, Sinotrans Company, EMS and so on, these companies have been in varying degrees Deputy to the integrated logistics of exploration and practice mode of operation. The development of an integrated logistics agency means, in particular: not to a large investment in fixed assets, low-cost operators, some or all of the commission to deal with logistics, pay attention to their own sales force and management of networks, the implementation of licensing agents, co-units into their own operating orbit, the company is operating integrated logistics core competencies of the sales agency business, procurement, coordination of management and organizational design and management, and focus on business process innovation and organizational innovation, the company continued to generate new business growth. Simply put, integrated logistics agent is actually effective business logistics managers. The use of this model should be the third-party logistics company has strong strength, air and taste, at the same time have developed a network system, such as logistics enterprises in the transition to the integrated logistics agents can do in order to provide customers with a full range of services .
(5) Focus on the logistics model
Focus on the logistics model is characterized by a certain third-party logistics enterprise's assets and the broader logistics network, in a low field of providing integrated logistics services. Due to different areas of the logistics needs of different clients, when the limited capacity of a logistics company, they can take such a strategic focus to market segments in a stronger do fine.For example, based on the same rail-based logistics company, a railway express company is a nationwide small piece of cargo to provide express delivery services, and the other logistics companies to provide long-distance transport of bulk goods. As the field has its own specific characteristics, this mode of operation of third-party logistics companies need to focus on nurturing and development.
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